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Journal number 3 ∘ Ana Chagelishvili
Georgia in world rankings: knowledge, talent competitiveness, human capital and development

Expanded Summary

Population development is the goal of every country. It does not mean only achieving economic results and is related to other factors important for development, including the accumulation of human capital or knowledge, education, formation of an environment conducive to development, talent management and other important issues. Accordingly, in the mentioned direction, the research of Georgia's positions or indices in the world rankings will gather important information for evaluating the effectiveness of the reforms and for identifying the needs of future development. The aim of the paper is to review the world indices important for the development of the population of Georgia as human resources and to reveal the problems in the relevant directions, for which the following tasks are defined: human development index, human development index adjusted according to inequality, gender development index, global knowledge index, human capital index and talent Overview of the Global Competitiveness Index.

Indexes and ratings are indicators based on empirical data, which only approximate the real state of the country. The quality of the data is considered to determine their validity; calculation methodology; The number and structure of countries in the ranking. That is why, instead of considering them separately, joint analysis and comparison will be more effective.

Human development index HDI is a well-known tool for assessing the country's population, as well as the development of human resources and the macroeconomic situation. Along with economic factors, it emphasizes the importance of people and their capabilities in the development of a country. The analysis showed that since 2000, Georgia's HDI has almost continuously exceeded the regional and world average. Since the HDI does not take into account the inequality of the population, in parallel with it, since 2010, the inequality-adjusted human development index - IHDI  has been calculated, which is considered a real indicator of development, while the HDI itself is a potential index. In 2019, the IHDI is 0.716, which means that in 2019, Georgia lost 11.8% of human development due to inequality.

It is also important to consider the human development index from a gender point of view, which the Gender Development Index GDI allows. It is the ratio of HDI of women and men. As the HDI of women and men is increasing every year, the GDI is also increasing and is equal to 0.98 as of 2019. It should be noted that the HDI of men is higher than the same indicator of women.

The HDI calculation methodology has changed over the years, and the dramatically improved indicators may be due to this reason. In 2010, the transition of Georgia to the group of countries with a high level of development is associated with this kind of change, and not with the improvement of indicators. Uneven growth of Georgia's HDI components balances out in the overall indicator, for example, over the years, Georgia's life expectancy index has consistently exceeded its income index. The analysis also shows that the IHDI significantly lags behind the HDI index, as a result, Georgia loses more than 10% annually in human development. A gender analysis of the HDI shows that women's HDI falls slightly behind men's HDI almost every year, however, as HDI increases for both sexes, so does GDI.

 The shortcomings of the HDI are somewhat compensated by the Global Knowledge Index (GKI). It is based on 7 sub-indices and their correlation. With an index of 51.3 in 2021, Georgia even exceeds the world average and ranks 60th among 154 countries. In the ranking, it is ahead of many neighbors, however, it is behind Russia.

As for the human capital index HCI, it shows how the improvement of people's health and education determines the future productivity of the workforce. The index includes elements of survival, schooling and health. According to the 2020 report of the World Bank, the human capital index of Georgia is 0.57, that is, under ideal conditions of education and health, a child born in Georgia will reach 57% of productivity in adulthood. According to the mentioned index, Georgia lags behind the average indicator of the European and Central Asian region and the neighboring countries.

The Global Talent Competitiveness Index GTCI annually evaluates how a country grows, attracts and retains talent. Over the last 5 years, GTCI shows both a decreasing and increasing trend, where the change in the calculation methodology should also be taken into account.

Just considering that Georgia has a very high rate of human development does not mean that a number of factors in this direction are in the same situation. The analysis of the indices discussed above showed that according to the data of 2019, Georgia has a very high index in the HDI, IHDI and GDI indices, which we cannot see in the cases of the 2021 GKI, 2020 HCI and 2021 GTCI, where there are average indicators. In the ratings of the considered indices, Georgia is mostly ahead of its neighbors - Armenia and Azerbaijan, however, it lags behind Russia and Turkey. Due to the fact that often the components balance each other in the total indicator, the discussion of the above-mentioned indices is more useful for comparing countries (for example, with neighboring countries), and their dynamic discussion is often not justified, even due to frequent changes in methodology.