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Journal number 4 ∘ Ramaz Abesadze

Summary.In the article is scrutinized the innovative policies of economics in the post-Soviet countries. There is identified advantages and disadvantages of that policy, its common and distinctive marks. Also are proposed the key directions for improving innovative policies in economics in these countries.

Keywords: Innovation, Innovation Economy, Innovation Policy, Innovation System 


Every country, no matter in what level of development it is, in the modern time should be able to strive  an effective  system of innovations that would be  based on its own research. To do this, the government must create the conditions for enhancing innovation activities, for increasing an innovative components in  economy. First of all, government should define the country's innovation policy and formulate the legal basis for innovative development.

Innovations are held from immemorial time, but the period from innovation to innovation was too long (see table).  The thousands of years had been passed before the next innovation reached. However, the magnitude of that term was gradually diminishing nowadays, from millennia to several years. And in that case, should be remarked  the post-industrial period of industrial civilization - the post-industrial society . That society is characterized by a highly diversified market economy and a high level of socioeconomic development. It is based on:  knowledge, the flow of innovations, technologies, information, institutions, human capital, organizing of enterprises, products, etc.   The continual improvement; intellectual work of scientists and innovators, and not only just capital. Science- Invention- Innovation – are   united organic developing factors in such economy. And that's why the relevant economy of that society is called the innovation economy.

In the process of today's world development, countries look very unequal and therefore, according to the level of their development, they are basically divided into developed and developing countries. Separately  should be marked  out  the post-communist countries, these countries  have refused to rule of  administrative-economic system and have  moved  to a market economy. The main task of developing and post-communist countries is to move to innovation economy. However, that  process is a quite complex issue, as it requires deep, profound  and qualitative changes, the continually  efforts  and strong links between high-level scientific potential, advanced technologies, science and enterprise  which will, of course, be achieved at the concrete and investigated  level of economic development. And the government's role in accelerating that  process is enormous. Practice shows that countries where governments were able to make qualitative changes, these countries have quickly advanced economics, while those whose governments made mistakes on that  path of reforms  and failed to make qualitative changes , they are seriously behind.

The post-Soviet countries need a certain approach, as the command-and-control system of the economy was the most rigorous in these countries, so the transition to an innovation economy was mostly difficult there, but  situation is different  even between these countries. For example, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia have been able to develop a highly developed national innovation systems, they  became full members of the European Union, and these systems are currently operating within the EU's integrated innovation system. Thus, we will only deal with  situation in the rest of the post-Soviet countries in view of the innovative policies of all of them.

Technological innovations by historical epochs[1]

The historic era

Technological innovation


Mesolithic (10-8 millennia BC)                                                


The Arrow Fletching, Boats, Ceramics

Neolithic (7-4 millenniums BC)                        

The Basic Farming, Livestock, Craftsmanship, Construction


Pre-class civilization (from the 3rd millennium BC

to the new millennium)               


Melting of Metals (Copper, Bronze, Gold),

 Irrigation of Land                                                     Metal Weapons, The Wheels

An ancient civilization (the second half of the 1st millennium BC - the first half of the first millennium AD )

Iron Ore,  Iron Works and Ammunition, Steel.


Medieval Civilization (VI-XIV centuries)

Windmill, Clock, Fire Guns, Compass, Multi-Deck Ships




Commodities, Coal, Manufactures, Artillery, Rifles, Revolvers

 Industrial Civilization (Rear Thirteenth Century - End of XX Century)


Machinery, Steam Engine, Railway, Electricity, Internal Engine, Aviation, Atomic Energy, Nuclear Weapons, Computers , The  Internet



The first document expressing Russia's innovative state policy was “ The Federal Law on Science and State Scientific and Technical Policy “ (1996). The law defines the main goals and principles of state innovation policy [Щитова... 2014].

Thereafter, two documents were adopted. 1.” The Main Directions Of Development Innovative System Of Russian Federation to 2010” (2005).  2. "Strategy for Development of Science and Innovation in  Russian Federation until 2015". (2006), by these steps  was established  a national  system of innovation for  developing research and all  sectors of economics,by  modernizing  economy on the basis of technological innovations. However, due to the global financial crisis, almost all of these tasks had been failed, because they were made as a  fragmented  and  non-systematic issues. In general, Russian innovation system was created on the remainders  of the Soviet Union's research institutes, scientific-industrial unions, and design bureaus, so it did not prove to be sufficiently effective. [8]

Therefore, in 2011was adopted  the “Strategy for Innovative Development of the Russian Federation until 2020”. It is based on the provisions of Russian Federation's  “ Concept of Long-term Socio-Economic Development until 2020”  and is designed to define the goals, priorities and tools of innovative policies, to empower the subjects of innovative activities, financing of fundamental and applied sciences, commercialization of development. It's the long-term orientations. It takes into account the difficulties facing the country.

According to the new innovation strategy, the main directions of Russia's innovative policy are: mainly to "support" policy in the process of innovation development, and to play a leading role in some segments of the economy where competitive advantage exists or arises; to increase co-financing of innovative projects; support for advancement of Russia's innovative products on the world market; improvement of innovative infrastructure; development of fundamental and applied sciences; creation of a unified scientific and educational space; full integration of  national innovative system into  international system; to establish close relations between state, business, science and education, etc.


In Belarus since the 90s of  twentieth century,  thinking about innovation economics was  recognized as the strategic direction of  economy that is  based on the development of science and technology. Since then, many institutional documents have been adopted in the country, paving the way for building an innovation economy. These documents are: “ Law on State Scientific-Technical Policy “ (1993); “  Law on State Support of Small Entrepreneurship “ (1996); “ Law on Scientific Activities “; (1996); “ Law on State Innovation Policy and Innovation Activities”  (2012); "Presidential Decree on Stimulating the Creation and Development of New and High Technology-Based Production" (1996); “ On the Innovation Policy Concept 2003-2007 "(2003);" Scientific-Innovative Activity Development Program "(1996);" Law on Small Entrepreneurship Incubators "(1997);" Law on Science and Technology Parks "(1997); “ On the Establishment of the Belarusian Innovation Fund "(1997);" State Program for Innovative Development 2011-2015 "(1998) and others.

On the basis of these documents a national innovation system was established and  nowadays operates in Belarus. Despite the success, there are some drawbacks in innovation activities of Belarus. These drawbacks  include: a weak development of innovative entrepreneurship; incomplete innovation infrastructure and weak links between its elements; weak links between scientific organizations, educational institutions and enterprises. Currently, after a thorough deliberation and endorsement by the country's Cabinet of Ministers, a document entitled "The Republic of Belarus Innovative Development Program 2016-2020" was  adopted,  which will play a major role in eliminating all these shortcomings.

According to “ The National Strategy for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development of Belarus in 2021-2030 ”, country's scientific and technical activities  aim  to create a  competitive national innovation system that will  provide  generating of knowledge  and its consequences in innovation economy [Дичковский...2014].


The primary task of  Armenian government in the early years of independence was to tackle the problems caused by economic downturns, so the innovative development course was only in place since the mid of the first decade of 2000s. But in spite of that, they have achieved serious success. The following documents were adopted: "Law on Scientific and Scientific-Technical Activities": "Government Decree on the Concept of Development of Information Technology and Plan of  its Implementation";  The  Government Decree "On Approval of Priorities in the Development of Science and Technology"; Government Resolution "On the Concept of Supporting Innovative Activities and Program Approval in 2005-2010";  “ Law on State Support for Innovative Activities”; “ On the Starting Strategy for Innovation Economy Formation” (2011), etc.

One of the peculiarities of Armenian innovation policy can be considered as one of the powerful resources of innovation development is the Armenian Diaspora. Many important innovative projects are being implemented in Armenia with a huge support of   Diaspora. 

At present, the problems with Armenian innovation system are : the slow  development of  innovative infrastructure and a weak link between the state, science and business;  leading to the development of innovative entrepreneurship.  The legal reforms, development of institutions and tools supporting innovation, modernization of education, implementation of international standards and more are planned to solve these problems. The main focus is made on the creation of a national innovation system with complete elements and infrastructure.

In the medium term, it is necessary to move from the concept of economic growth to the concept of economic development [Тевикян… 20914].


Innovation economic development is a key focus of Kazakhstan's national strategy and policy. Important documents are adopted in the country, such as: "Kazakhstan's Forced Industrial Development Program 2010-2014"; "Program for Promotion of Innovation and Technological Modernization in  2009-2014"; "Kazakh State Program for the Development of Science in 2007-2010"; "Interdisciplinary plan for scientific and technical development of the country till 2020"; “Productivity 2020” Program; "State Program for Industrial-Innovative Development of Kazakhstan in 2015-2019", etc.

These documents outline the country's innovation development policy, strategy and program, on the basis of which Kazakhstan has made significant progress in the national innovation system. The all elements of this system have already worked in place and functioning. But there are also disadvantages: the level of development of innovative entrepreneurship is low; the country's innovation policy is aimed at stimulating innovation, and therefore the demand for innovation is lagging behind its supply; it is insufficient to stimulate the transfer of advanced technologies; mechanisms for resolving business technological tasks are ineffective; business perception level of technological innovation is low; technological and managerial competencies are insufficient, etc.

It is to address these shortcomings that the “State Program for Industrial-Innovative Development of Kazakhstan in 2015-2019” is implemented.

The main tasks that are set by Kazakhstan are: to become one of the 50 most competitive countries in the world by 2020 and it will have been resolved, and the next task is:  to be between 30 of the most technologically advanced countries by 2030[6]


The concept of state innovation policy of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan 2003-2005 was elaborated in the direction of innovation development, which failed to provide an innovative system in the country. The following documents were adopted: “National Strategy for Sustainable Development of the Kyrgyz Republic 2013-2017”; "Kyrgyzstan Sustainable Development Transition Program 2013-2017"; "State Program of Intellectual Property and Innovation Development of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan for 2013-2017", etc.

Currently is adopted the "Concept of Innovative Development of the Kyrgyz Republic until 2020" that is aimed to eliminate the existing shortcomings. The main focus will be made on creating a unified national innovation system based on a strong link between science, business and state. At the first stage, the industry will be modernized on the basis of foreign technologies, and then, by development of local science, prioritize will be given to own innovations. 


It can be said that nowadays the innovative activities are in the process of being formed in Tajikistan , but the government's focus was on increasing scientific and technical potential from the beginning. A number of documents are adopted defining the state policy aimed at enhancing scientific research, developing new technologies and introducing them for realization. These documents are: "Law on Science and State Scientific and Technical Policy" (1998); “State Scientific-Technical Concept” (1999); "Strategy in Science and Technology 2007-2020" (2006); "Program for Implementation of Scientific-Technological Advances in Industrial Production in 2010-2015"; (2009); “Science and Technology Strategy 2011-2015” (2011); “Innovation Development Program of the Republic of Tajikistan 2011-2020”, etc.
Current problems include: inadequate involvement in innovative business of scientific and scientific-technical potential; weak innovation infrastructure; a low level of information and communication development;  a low level of development of innovative entrepreneurship, etc. 


In Turkmenistan the state   innovative policy has been intensified in recent years. Only in 2014 laws were adopted: “On Innovative Activities”; "On State-of-the-Science Policy" and "On State Scientific-Techno Parks". Documents on education and science were later adopted – “Law on Education” (2007) and “The State Program for Development of Science in 2012-2016 “. (2011) Accordingly, the country's innovative system is in the process of forming.

The main focus of Turkmenistan's scientific-technical and innovative policy is made on the state support for innovation to promote the country's socio-economic development and improve the quality of people’s life [Положительные… 2014].

The main objectives of the state innovative policy are: formation and development of   national innovation system; creation and development of innovative infrastructure; to establish innovation market and development of innovative entrepreneurship; strengthening links between the state, science and production; deepening international relationship in the field of innovation, etc. 


In Uzbekistan, in spite of the fact that there are separate innovation projects, but a more or less complete innovation policy and innovative system has not existed yet. Innovative business is only fragmented. In that term, only one “The Law On Education “is adopted, which naturally cannot be used to define innovative policies. According to official statistics and many experts believe that the domestic economy is not stimulated enterprises to introduce innovation, which is a major factor for hindering country's competitiveness growth [Абдуллаев… 20152]. Currently, the Interdepartmental Commission is preparing “The Law on Innovation”, which will undoubtedly help to strengthen the legal basis for building an innovation economy and the formation of a national innovation system. 


Many documents have been adopted in Ukraine on the country's innovative development (“Law on Innovative Activities” (2002);  “ Law on Priority Areas of Innovation” ; “ Ukraine's Innovation Development Strategy 2010-2020”, and etc.) But almost all of them don’t work properly, and some of them are even forgotten, because in country very often changes government [Малицкий… 2011].

In the future, it is necessary to refine innovative policies to improve the legal basis in order to obtain larger documents to simplify their implementation. The existing innovation system of country should strengthen the link between all its individual elements. 


Innovations in Azerbaijan are implemented in different spheres of economy, and the state actively supports the implementation of innovations. But the process of innovation development is not systemic in nature, due to the lack of a proper legal base and a complete innovation system. The State Innovation Policy is implemented by the National Academy of Sciences, the Scientific Innovation Center[12] and the State Fund[13]. for Information Technology Development. Accordingly by, “The National Strategy for Information and Communication Technologies ” (2003-2012) and “ The State Program for Development of Communication and Information Technologies”  (2005-2008) were adopted.

Currently, Azerbaijan faces the following tasks: defining the country's innovative policy at the legislative level; developing elements of the innovation system and strengthening the links between them; creating an innovation market; strengthening links between science, education, manufacturing and the market, etc. [Наджафов... 2014].


The state recognized the country's path to innovation in 1998, when it adopted the "Concept of Scientific Research and Development Reform." In 2004, the "Moldova Republic Code on Science and Innovation" was adopted, thus establishing the basis for state policy in the field of science and innovation. In 2007, “The  Law on Scientific-Technical Parks and Innovative Incubators ” was adopted, by creating the basis for innovative infrastructure [Попович…2014].

However, innovative business in Moldova is underdeveloped due to its own financial resources and high risks.

In 2012, the “Moldova Innovation Strategy 2013-2014” was adopted, which will address the following three objectives: enterprise technological development; innovative infrastructure development; build on a knowledge-based economy.


None of the previous governments in Georgia saw innovation as a priority area of ​​public interest [Shatberashvili…2015], that’s   why the legal basis for innovation development is generally starting only now. Although we may title documents which directly or indirectly meet the requirements of innovation development, there are: “ Georgian Law on Science, Technology and Their Development”  (1994);  “Georgia’s Socio-Economic Development Strategy to 2020 ”, but they are not sufficiently innovative documents, for  setting up and run the system powerfully, but in the same time, we can’t claim that the introduction of innovations in  economy did not take place before. In the last years some steps were taken towards the introduction of information and telecommunication technologies and the development of innovative infrastructure [Abesadze R… 2016; Абесадзе ... 2016]

Currently, Georgia's Law “On Innovation” is being adopted, which covers the subjects of innovation activities, infrastructure supporting for innovation activities, financing of innovation activities and commercialization of innovations. The draft law defines a state strategy in the field of innovation, which is approved by the Government of Georgia with recommendations of the Research and Innovation Council. The tasks and functions of the advisory body of the Government of Georgia - the Research and Innovation Council and the legal entity of public law - the Agency for Innovation and Technology of Georgia in the field of innovation are also defined. According to the aforementioned bill, the infrastructure supporting innovation activities is: Science and Technology Parks; Business Incubators; Business Accelerators; Technology Transfer Centers Industrial Innovation Labs (FAB- LAB) and Innovation Labs (I- LAB ); Innovation Centers[15];. Naturally, this law will have a positive effect on innovative activities to strengthen  Georgia, but, at the same time, it is necessary: to adopt an "Innovation Development Strategy and Program" and "Georgia’s  Science and Education Development Program", which are based on the need to implement the innovative system , strengthening  the infrastructure and its effective functioning. A national innovation system should ensure the smooth implementation of the entire innovation (science-invention-production) cycle, including at the regional level, where the market  of innovations should  play a key role and where the state has the greatest responsibility, using various levers (legislative, financial, incentive, organizational, etc.), to promote innovation in economy formation. The state should play a key role in that processes and, in general, it must be “ a main messenger” of  Georgia’s economy [Абдуллаев.. 2015]. 


The analysis of  given above information  and other materials allow us to draw the following conclusion:

1. In all post-Soviet countries it is recognized that without the construction of  innovation economy it will not be possible to make qualitative changes in any field of human activities and, especially, in economy.

2. All governments in the post-Soviet states have taken some steps in this direction, but the results are not the same everywhere else. For example, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia have been able to develop relevant innovation policies, set up a national innovation system, they became members of the European Union and nowadays successfully operate in a highly developed EU innovation system. This was due to the fact that these countries laid the groundwork for economic development while still in the ex-Soviet Union, and in the years that followed, efforts were further strengthened. It should also be taken into account that these countries are located closer to the developed countries, which have greatly assisted them in the development of t own economies.

3.  Some other  post-Soviet countries recognized the path of innovative development from the outset and developed innovative policies (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Moldova) and  considerable strides (Armenia, Kyrgyzstan), while others, despite the implementation of innovations in certain fields, only  now form  the legal basis for the development of innovation economy (Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan).

4. Despite the differences, the post-Soviet countries have the same problems, after the Soviet Union collapsed almost everywhere there was an economic decline, which led to the innovative system degradation (decreased the  scientific potential, scientific and technical bases  were destroyed, the state of science and invention steps also   decreased).

In addition, the transition to a market economy has required the new approaches to implementing innovative processes. And in this way, due to objective as well as subjective reasons, governments failed to make timely adjustments and situation is particularly too bad in the regions. Therefore, the current resolutions requires: further refinement of innovation policy; replenishment of new elements of innovation systems and strengthening of the links between these elements ( state- science –business) so  the cycle - science-invention-innovation should  run smoothly; effective operation of innovative leverage by the state; enhancing regional innovation policy and  much more.

5. What is also common to the post-communist countries is that none of them have an innovation system based on their own research, nowadays the most of them are importing innovations and probably this process will last a quite long time, of course, the term of time will vary by country to country. Russia has an advantage in this regard, as it possesses great potential of resources (including natural, scientific, human, technological, financial, etc.).

6. One of the peculiarities for innovation in the post-Soviet countries (except Lithuania, Latvia, Georgia and Estonia) is that they have been cooperating within the CIS. In 2011, the document "International Program for Innovative Cooperation between CIS States" was adopted, which aims to create conditions for global competitiveness in the participating countries. The main task is to create an interstate innovation space that will combine the capabilities of national innovation systems. 


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[1]The data in this paragraph are from the following document:

1. Обзор инновационного развития Армении

http://www.iatp.am/news/IPR-Armenia.pdfРеспублики Армения

2. «Закон Республики Армения о государственном содействии инновационной деятельности»

https://www.google.com/search?client=opera&q=Закон++Республики+Армения++о+ государственном+содействии+инновасионной+ деятельности&sourceid=opera&ie=UTF-8&oe= UTF-8

[2] «Стратегия инновационного развития Российской Федерации На период до 2020 года» http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/ online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=123444; fld=134;dst=1000000001,0; rnd=0.8663321377780822

[3] The data in this paragraph are from the following documentS:

1. Обзор инновационного развития Республики Белорусь https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/ DAM/ceci/publications/icp4_r.pdf

2.“Концепция национальной инновационной системы РБ“ https://www.google.com/ search?client=opera&q=концепция+национальной+ инновационной+системы+ рб&sourceid=opera&ie= UTF-8&oe=UTF-8

3. «Государственная программа инновационного развития Республики Беларусь на 2011 – 2015 годы» и др. http://www.government.by/upload/docs/ file5a5cae06fafe4b28.PDF

[4]The data in this paragraph are from the following documentS:

1. Обзор инновационного развития Армении http://www.iatp.am/news/IPR-Armenia.pdfРеспублики Армения;

2. «Закон Республики Армения о государственном содействии инновационной деятельности»

https://www.google.com/search?client=opera&q=Закон++Республики+ Армения++о+государственном+содействии+ инновасионной+ деятельности&sourceid= opera&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8

[5] The data in this paragraph are from the following document:

1. “Обзор инновационного развития Казах­стана” http://www.eabr.org/general/ /upload/docs/AU/Международная%20конференция/ Добриньски_ Обзор%20инновационного%2 0развития%20РК.pdf

2. “Государственная программа индустриально-инновационного развития Республики Казахстанна 2015-2019 годы».

[6] Шакиртханов Б. Р. Формирование и совершенствование инновационной политики в Республике Казахстан.. Ж.: Управление инновациями: теория, методология, практика № 6 / 2013 http://cyberleninka.ru/ article/n/formirovanie-i-sovershenstvovanie-innovatsionnoy-politiki-v-respublike-kazahstan

[7]Концепция инновационного развития Кыргызской Республики до 2020 года

[8] «Программа инновационного развития Республики Таджикистан на 2011-2020 годы»


[9]The data in this paragraph are from the following documents:

1. ЗАКОН ТУРКМЕНИСТАНА Об инновационной деятельности


2. ЗАКОН ТУРКМЕНИСТАНА О государственной научно-технической политике

[10] Концепция инновационного развития Республики Узбекистан на 2012-2020 гг.


[11] Innovation Performance Review of Ukraine


[12] http://innovasiya.az/ru/page/number/1

[13] https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Государственный_Фонд_Развития_ Информационных_Технологий

[14]Инновационная стратегия Республики Молдова на период 2013-2020 гг.


[15] https://www.google.com/search?client=opera&q=საქართველოს+ ინოვაციური+ პოლიტიკა+%2B კანინმდებლობა&sourceid= opera&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8#q=%E1%83%A1%E1%83%90%E1%83%A5%E1%83%90%E1%83%A0%E1% 83%97%E1%83%95%E1%83%94%E1%83%9A%E1%83%9D%E1%83%A1+% E1%83%99%E1%83%90%E1%83%9C%E1%83%9D%E1%83%9C%E1%83%98+% E1%83%98%E1%83%9C%E1%83%9D%E1%83%95%E1%83%90%E1%83%AA% E1%83%98%E1%83%A3%E1%83%A0%E1%83%98+%E1%83%A1%E1%83%90% E1%83%A5%E1%83%9B%E1%83%98%E1%83%90%E1%83%9C% E1%83%9D%E1%83%91%E1%83%98%E1%83%A1+% E1%83%A8%E1%83%94%E1%83%A1% E1%83%90%E1%83%AE%E1%83%94% E1%83%91