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Journal number 3 ∘ Salome Silagadze
Aspects of Innovational Technology and Migration Management


Expanded Summary

International migration is a source of important demographic changes globally. Hence, having relevant statistics and information can be a crucial asset for a country that is willing to further the development of migration management.

Technology is considered to be a source of progress within the fourth industrial revolution. Online services and goods developed over the last decades has not only integrated technologies into business processes but it has also assisted to develop aspects of economic policies including migration control and procedures.

According to the International Organization for Migration in 2020, there are 280.6 million migrants living around the world [IOM, 2021]. The number of international travelers has also been increasing throughout the years and in 2019, 2.28 billion tourists were recorded to be have travelled [World Bank, 2021]. Additionally, approximately 49% of world population have access to internet [World Bank, 2017]. Given these facts, one may conclude that the mobility of internet "friendly" individuals around the globe has been rising. Hence,  by merging technologies in the border management and migration procedures, governments could gain a competitive advantage due to the refinement of on- border services and development for developing  user friendly digital platforms for travelers.

Due to the relevancy of the subject the first part of the article is dedicated to the study of  "Smart Border" concept and its "integration" within different countries. As for the second part of the work, it presents the examples of various technology usage advancement of migration control.

                                 Aspects of the "Smart Border" Concept

The foundation for the development of migration management with the help of complex technologies was laid in the early 2000s. At that time period "Smart Border" concept was mainly supported by developed countries.

Throughout the years the notion was adapted by various governments with diverse approaches. For better resource allocation and overall effectiveness the European Union has developed a more unified, centralized strategy for the "Smart Border" development within the member states.

Since the early 2000s EU and its member states have founded organizations that: regulate terrorism, cybercrime and human trafficking (Europol), control cross-border and transnational crime (EUROJUST), guard the Schengen border (Frontex) and generally stimulate collaboration and information sharing within the EU and its partners.

As for the countries in North America, they have adapted the "Smart Borders" through specific agreements that mainly focus on subjects such as the regulation the borders of the North American states, procedures needed for the export-import of trade products and the so-called "passport control".

However, the Covid pandemic has enlarged the demand of tech integration in migration control. According to the data, 41 countries have began to implement various remote services and contactless border procedures with the assistance of UNHCR. Initiatives such as the Smart Border Declaration, Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative and others, have playes a significant role in harmonizing the migration & goods movement procedures throughout the countries in North America.

                            Artificial Intelligence and Migration Management

The scale and speed of migration is difficult to predict as it is affected by many social or economic factors such as natural disasters, economic crisis, etc. However, the incorporation of technologies in the migration control could enhance forecasting of future trends and/or routes of potential migrants.

Advanced technologies are used to analyze an individual's travel and biometric information, which results in determining the passenger's so-called. "Electronic Alter Ego" [Chui et al. 2018]. Artificial intelligence is used to analyze data on identity checks, border controls, visa and asylum seekers [Chui et al. 2018].

Quantitative and / or qualitative data  obtained via mobile phones, online platforms and  social media can determine aspects of migration flow patterns, migrants' personal data and even migrants' integration within the destination country [Wilson et al,2016; IOM, 2021]. It should also be noted that the development of artificial intelligence requires large amounts of data [Burrell, 2016; Wachter, Mittelstadt and Russell 2018]. Hence, in order to make migration management control more effective it is needed to develop additional tools for  sharing border information between states and / or international organizations.

Apart from migration forecasting, in order improve immigration services and simplify border risk management, Frontex and the European countries are working to use drones at border crossings, and in 2020 the EU launched the Roborder project, which's main goal is to implement autonomous border surveillance with the help of technology[EDRi, 2020]. 


Based on the abovementioned information, it may be concluded that complex technologies and  artificial intelligence,  has the potential to manage and perhaps forecast future  international migration. However, to achieve this goal, it is necessary to develop an ethical framework for data collection and analysis. Hence, In addition, there is a need to further develop data sharing mechanisms and invest in the development of new, more sophisticated technologies,