English / ქართული / русский /

Journal number 3 ∘ Rusudan Kvaratskhelia Levan kikilashvili
BIO Agro Eco-tourism as a basis for green business development in Georgia



Bio agri-tourism, in many countries around the world and Georgia at this stage, is successfully gaining a foothold. It is one direction of green business, an essential component, its strong pillar. The development of bio-agri-tourism as a green business can solve many rural, development-oriented farmers, restaurants, hotel businesses, tour operators, and those who care about promoting local natural or cultural wealth to attract tourists. The development of bio-agri-tourism can play a turning role in the development of tourism in the country, in the country's economy, diversity tours, and attracting more and more tourists from different parts of the world. It should also be noted that the development of bio-agritourism unequivocally poses less of a threat to the so-called loss caused by mass tourism, as it is a direction that includes the concept of environmental protection, love of nature, protection of natural resources. People who conceptually approach the issue that health, a healthy lifestyle, and ecologically safe product are only associated with a protected and healthy environment are less likely to be harmful to the environment. In addition, based on the geographical location of Georgia, the rich environmental conditions, diverse climatic conditions, unprecedented diversity of soil types, many endemic species of crops, traditions, and customs, it is possible to attract tourists interested in specific areas, both scientific and research. In terms of cultural tours. The development of organic farms is relevant worldwide today, so to attract people interested in growing biologically pure products for educational purposes, Georgia is undoubtedly a great resource (thanks to the diversity of soil types and climatic conditions). Which promotes identity, separates the use of biologically pure and pesticide-contaminated products, leads to a healthy and unhealthy lifestyle, and emphasizes the ability of local people to make choices through gained skills. Individuals develop new, healthy habits for their health promotion based on commercial interest and an excess of biologically clean, environmentally safe products.

Keywords:Green Business, Bio Agro Tourism, Green Technologies, Organic Products, Health Promotion, Eco-Friendly Tourism. 


In some countries, the term “Rural Tourism” has been established, including independent areas: agritourism, ecotourism, Ethno tourism. Although the approach is different in different countries, ecotourism does not mean a rural tour. Ethno tourism is one of the essential pillars of agri-tourism. Local ethnocultural customs, traditions are also exciting and essential for agritourism: the charm and attractiveness of agritourism lie in its regionalism. The natural environmental conditions typical of a particular region, climate, soil type, endemic crops, traditionally experienced plant species are the backbone of agritourism. Ecotourism means getting acquainted with the activities of the population in a specific environment and getting acquainted with national holidays, competitions, traditional activities, and established customs in economic, industrial, and agrarian terms.

Agritourism is a branch of the tourism industry, which focuses on the recreation of the urban population in rural areas. It uses local natural-climatic, socio-cultural, ethnographic resources, local agricultural products, and other similar resources, from which complex tour products are created. The most critical factor in agritourism is the involvement of agritourism in agricultural activities. The agri-tourist chooses the direction of interest (livestock, poultry, plant growing, winemaking, beekeeping, etc.), engages in daily activities, and harvests with his own hands. He observes the whole cycle on the spot or remotely for a certain period, and to pick up, eat or take home, he arrives by himself, takes pleasure, eats healthy products, which combines material prosperity, if he also cooperates commercially with local bio-agro farmers.

Many farmers, besides farming, have already turned to agritourism as a source of additional income and opportunities for farming. With the development of agri-tourism, bio-Agri farmers can make a lot of positive changes both for their well-being and for the country: the local economy is strengthening, tourist clusters are being created, jobs are being created; they create training and certification programs, young people are interested; Agritourism contributes to the preservation of rural lifestyle and landscape, ensures the development of “sustainable” and “green” tourism. Organic agriculture is a cultural evolution that has its roots in the culture of ecology. In addition, the focus on these products is on-demand for healthy food, with a high-quality standard that limits the use of chemicals. The connection of organic agriculture with agri-tourism and tourism services is infinitely great, which plays an essential role in the future development of the village. This article identifies the factors that contribute to rural development through the development of bio agritourism.

We should note that the list of agricultural work performed by tourists in different European countries is different: in Croatia, for example, a tourist helps a farmer to pick olives, grapes. An exciting and fun activity is to find mushroom truffles (a precious mushroom species) with specially trained dogs. Rural tourism in the Czech Republic includes milking cows, shearing sheep, raising cheese; it is popular in Poland to extract cheese from sheep's milk; in Italy, they pick grapes and oranges, make cheese, and make pizza.

The list of agricultural activities is quite extensive and varied, including seasonal. Tourists choose the countries where they can do the desired work according to the season. Agritourists choose rural areas where nature is undisturbed, customs are maintained, agricultural work is less mechanized and primarily traditional, and the crop's method is biologically pure. For the village to maintain its image, it is necessary to adhere to the principles of sustainable development of agri-tourism, such as nature protection, social principle, economic principle, cultural-historical principle, etc.


Tourism can be one of the key aspects to support sustainable growth. Tourism is often cited as a critical parameter in different target groups. Tourism is clearly distinguished in terms of sectoral contribution to job creation, positive changes in the economy, a sustainable consumption chain, and transparent use of resources in target groups. On constant cooperation in order to bring about positive changes in the local economy. [Tchouamou Njoya & Nikitas, 2020]

Delivery of tourism products and services to the destination requires compliance and contribution to various economic activities. It is a decentralized value chain and enables various links and interactions between close cooperation between local and regional agritourism. These economic structures are becoming increasingly dynamic in the world. It becomes an established place of activity where attractiveness depends on local characteristics. Tourism potentially contributes to the formation of an extensive network of cooperation and consolidation. Thus, different interdependence has become the best means of proximity between economic sectors and requires constant monitoring. [Rome, 2020]

For the tourism sector, we can see this as a coexistence mechanism in automated management of various processes based on existing tourism dynamics, further development of economic structures, or different representations of opportunities between tourism companies and the surrounding ecosystem. [Tchouamou Njoya & Nikitas, 2020]

The world'sworld's population continues to grow, reaching a level that limits the efficient use of natural resources. All over the world, critical agricultural farms and surrounding areas of small towns that support progress are undergoing continuous development to develop agritourism. It drives more visible changes, planning, and implementation, at the expense of the strong communities in the country and the continued cooperation of the government. The development of agriculture has created hundreds of thousands of spectacular bio-farming specimens worldwide, which have affected farmers. As economic benefits increase, they have further improved the urban side of their plots and expanded agri-businesses because of reinvestment. The exterior of ancient villages changes from time to time as current global conditions bring in subtle elements of construction that were not previously available, so it is becoming increasingly important for locals to arrange buildings that do not disrupt ethnos, culture, and new buildings. We consider traditional agriculture to be the leading field in most countries because it is the barn of the country. They have developed many alternative plans in the modern world to popularize rural communities and socialize them. Alternatives such as organic farming and convection farming, conservation, tourism, and a new face to the rural economy promise even faster and more innovative development to the local community. The cultural-economical way of the village attracts visitors and entertains them with elements of enjoying nature and a sense of harmonious lifestyle. Thus, the tourism and leisure business is often perceived as a top priority for countries, especially those with abundant natural resources, healthy food, distinctive dairy products, or other tangible wealth in rural areas, with small vegetables and natural products. [Emily Wu, 2018]

For decades, we have seen tourism as an opportunity for developing countries to learn about potential customers'customers' economic growth and fight poverty eradication. While this choice has always attracted the attention of critics, tourism is a well-established part of the new development discourse. The cultural diversity and the spectacular beauty of different countries are a magnet for tourists and governments to consider tourism as one of the most attractive sources of revenue. It shows the growing support of the tourism industry by the state. Increasing and supporting economic progress, this picture is even sharper in developing countries. The private sector is a central fair means of attracting and keeping human capital. With the learned examples, we created an even stronger and more sustainable economy. The role of food is the most crucial element in agri-tourism because it can play a turning role among all the eco-friendly relationships formed through ethnos hotels, farmers, tour operators, tourists, and other rings. If we based the relationship on continuous growth, then we get maintenance is also one of the most important aspects of strengthening and supporting tourist centers in agriculture. The practical and qualitative rate of time spent in the local community measured income from tourists, which is the best way to implement productive solutions through such connections. Those already involved in this type of relationship are actively taking essential steps to uphold environmental principles, helping the world reduce harmful habits that remain to date, and raise awareness of the local community'scommunity's cultural beliefs by adding new and essential attributes to rural life. [Laeis et al., 2020]

Most developing countries contribute to establishing international tourism in their territorial units, which automatically increases employment, investment, and care for the economic empowerment of potential agro farmers. International tourism often requires an increase in imports to offer a variety of food to tourists entering the country, but its positive effect may be maximized if it does not affect the domestic economy to improve tourist stays and reversals, which will help all green businesses in the region. Help create a continuous chain of supply of even more diverse products. Tourism should create good feedback with other countries and minimize currency speculation - the share of each dollar a tourist spends on an imported product should be as close to its income as possible. As for accommodation, food, and drink, it is the second-largest category for domestic tourism expenditures, which is closely linked to tourism and agriculture. A study of the links between tourism and agriculture in the Caribbean has led scientists to conclude that hotels often vary by type of facility - in terms of size, ownership, and clientele, as well as other factors, which is why the hotel-equipped restaurant is more valued in this area., Then an outdoor restaurant that rarely meets on the street. Therefore, large companies playing in the market are relatively better able to cope with the internal food distribution than small firms operating in the same market. Since the late 1960s, food distribution has primarily been channeled through state channels, both in the private hotel and restaurant chain and in the "supply and demand" food markets, and the country's focus on promoting international tourism has expanded. [Deere & Royce, 2019]

Despite the consensus that the tourism sector can benefit from local community benefits, most developing countries are not investing enough in increasing the role of tourism in economic involvement when it is an essential component in terms of the value chain. More and more tourists want to taste unique dishes that emphasize the place's culture to be visited and help maintain the traditional forms of agricultural and cultural systems. Local food can play an essential role in the sustainability component of tourism. Therefore, the expansion of agriculture tourism or the advancement of "agritourism" shows the importance of local agricultural products (distinctive food culture, livestock, and fish products processed and consumed by the farmer's restaurant). It contributes to economic growth and the local population. [Anderson, 2018]

Globalization and technological advances have reduced the role of the traditional economic sector, such as agriculture, forestry, and mining, and the rural population's dependence on livelihoods. This trend points to the need for development policies and introducing necessary programs that promote employment and provide businesses with opportunities to maximize opportunities beyond the traditional sectors for the rural population. One of the non-traditional activities that many consider having a high potential for livelihood development in many parts of the world, including Indonesia and especially in Western countries, is tourism. For the population's well-being, it is necessary to strengthen the links between tourism and local business and then its continuous development. Noteworthy here is the promotion of local business, mainly carried out by the population in the communities, such as agriculture, food, and industrial processing issues. The attractiveness of a tourist place depends on its resource capabilities. ᲛHome purpose resources (primary) include natural resources (climate, landscape, and ecosystem), cultural resources (cultural heritage, art, archaeological values, traditions, scientific values, handicrafts, subcultural formations); And social resources (demographic characteristics, capabilities, financial capital, knowledge, health-environment-property security and its support systems, local community interests, etc.). Destination resources support (secondary) includes accommodation sector (hotels, motels, infrastructure, and other related projects in eco-friendly urban environment), food sector (cafes, restaurants, etc.), tour and travel sector support, transportation sector, entertainment sector, timely information retrieval sector and the existence of international standards for service delivery. Social and cultural systems work with the community to make crucial decisions. Infrastructure development and economic empowerment generate new capital investment in the market, attract many investors, and equips the territorial unit with even more technological and information development. [Amin & Baehaqi, 2020]

The low carbon economy supports the development of the green concept. Sustainable development is an excellent example of tourism integration, and the agricultural sector can achieve a profit margin of "rapid economic and social development is effective and environmentally friendly in terms of environmental protection." It is an inevitable trend of social development. Agriculture, and the promotion of a territorial unit, are often viable because of its apparent location advantage. [Zhao, 2021]

Tourism and agriculture often work together to maintain a sustainable economy, create new jobs, increase foreign exchange inflows, and improve local living standards. Increasingly, the spread of economic and ecological sustainability elements in rural areas has been linked to the promotion of local agricultural products. Gastronomy plays a significant role in popularizing the food sector, increasing its attractiveness, strengthening its brand identity, and shaping public pride in food, especially in local cultures. They estimate that about a third of tourism spending comes from food consumption. Using gastronomy and local agricultural products can create additional economic benefits and facilitate the planning of many measures to enhance the sustainability and competitiveness of local tourist destinations and hotels. Despite the importance of gastronomy and agricultural consumption as an essential aspect of tourism, they often neglect it in the hospitality and tourism literature. However, researchers are paying more and more attention to this topic as a growing destination issue, trying to use their culinary resources to promote and differentiate themselves from other areas. For example, Australia and New Zealand use gastronomic and agricultural product resources to promote and differentiate themselves from other destinations. [Han et al., 2020]

The environment, especially water resources, has been under considerable stress in recent decades, resulting in water-related problems in many world regions. They constantly degraded surface and groundwater because of the active use of chemicals in agriculture, such as (agrochemicals, herbicides, cattle waste), industrial waste, and urban and tourist waste, which have not been disposed of; sustainable management of water resources should be a top priority in the design of any management system. To assess water needs to identify resources, potential threats, and problems, the scientific community has developed various indexes to monitor the level of ecology and the cleanliness of groundwater. Ecological footprints appear on everything, including ecological assets (intake of plant foods and use of fiber products, use of livestock and fish products, collection of forest products, etc.). All this requires a constant awareness of the population to develop the right behavioral skills. To find efficient ways of disposing of waste and ensure fewer emissions globally by considering the space required for carbon. It is the primary way of efficient use of land so that the area is necessary to maintain a population, and many more generations should use it to reproduce primary products. [Kourgialas et al., 2018]

Entering the tourism market is a problem for many family hotels and agritourism centers because if the country does not improve the living standards of local people through various incentive projects, otherwise it will be physically impossible to develop tourism services in the local market. The connection between tourism and international aid to the country benefited farmers, and all this helped ease poverty. [Mao et al., 2014]

We perceive food as one of the essential items for tourists. Local and regional food is recognized and regarded as a significant contributor to growth and development. However, despite such interest, it is still not enough to involve scholars in food tourism research to focus on even more essential elements when the field is being introduced. There is little knowledge in the field, the means to create a complete picture of unique foods. Based on a research method that includes both quantitative and qualitative research design, its purpose is to assess vital challenges to the agricultural and food industries. [Mei et al., 2017]

The link between agriculture and tourism, the inclusion and widespread diversification strategy, and farm and rural tourism development is relatively new for farmers. It is not easy to carry out practical tourism, especially when identity is crucial for the successful development of such extra activity. This issue can not be solved only by demonstrating technical skills because identity is also mental involvement. However, even if you have just gained the technical skills of tourism, the expected abilities will not be used effectively if you do not create an identity. [Ohe, 2017]

Tourism and agriculture contribute significantly to the development of the local economy. Many developing countries, which are now on the path to rapid tourism growth, face significant challenges. Many countries around the world, through tourism, are encouraging agricultural development as a substantial source of livelihood. Therefore, these sectors must pay great attention, especially in terms of economic opportunities, from which tourism emerges, and they observe positive prospects to establish sustainable agriculture. Connecting fruit growers, small farmers, marketing vegetables, flowers, and plants create an opportunity for the tourism industry to increase revenue among producers, intermediaries, processors, and hotel operators. They create links between tourism and agriculture, promote high quality, sustainable and responsible tourism, and improve food production issues. Although horticultural production accounts for a small share of the agricultural output, it contributes significantly to food safety, improved nutrition, and economic growth. [Sanches-Pereira et al., 2017]

The best opportunities, additional income through tourism-farming activities to help catch the balance. Revenues from the agricultural activity are steadily declining, especially in globalization, when all sectors need to find more ways to promote products and services than they have used to date. It allows farmers to stay on their farms and maintain the principles of land cultivation and organic food cultivation at the expense of their involvement, increasing even more income. [Streifeneder, 2016]

Agricultural heritage systems have been taking shape for a long time. The relationship between man and nature promotes the cultivation of primary agricultural products, enhances livelihood security and social stability. At the local, national level, the promotion of farming activities and the provision of conservation routes. National wealth and preserved heritage are crucial for the regions, and global sustainability is ecologically, socially, and culturally exciting and appreciated. Where the state is maximally involved, raising public awareness enhances the sustainability of the economy. [Su et al., 2020]

The development of rural tourism has become a new growth point for tourism and agriculture. It is a new impetus to promote rural urbanization, revitalize the rural economy, address agricultural issues, farmers and rural areas, promote employment, improve agriculture, and provide working conditions. The rural tourism industry is also efficient in meeting the demand of the tourism market. Entrepreneurship is crucial to stimulating rural viability, and it will increase farmers’ incomes, employ people and elevate farmers’ status. Tourism and entrepreneurship are important ways for rural people to reap economic benefits and encourage farmers. [Yuan et al., 2017]

Conclusion and recommendations

Encouraging green business at the regional level of the country is becoming an increasing priority around the world. It has a multifaceted explanation, one of which is to unload cities and effectively reduce the negative impact of mass tourism. Local and international funds and representations provide ongoing support to economically developing regions, which is one of the essential prerequisites for poverty alleviation for the local community. Although tourism is encouraged in the country, dozens of tour operators plan and implement domestic and international events. Rural food production, biologically clean and ecologically safe methods, promotion of bioavailability, and health promotion are relatively few popular. The current environmental conditions in Georgia, the current farmers, and their farms are a solid and essential foundation for organizing self-help, cognitive tours with elements of agri-tourism. Mental outreach events planned by the Green Business Association in organic farms are viral in schools, kindergartens, and universities. Young people are fortunate to learn about modern biotechnologies and strive to “learn by doing” parallel with various adventure tours. There is great interest from farmers to share essential knowledge and information to bring high-quality, biologically pure products to their agricultural lands, sell organic products at a relatively high price, and conquer different tourism market segments. Organic products grown on bio-agri-tourism farms should primarily saturate the local market, while it may export surplus products outside the country. Thus, with the development of bio agritourism in Georgia, the following positive results can be achieved: protection of the environment, saving of natural resources, preservation of the landscape; Stopping the migration of young people from the villages; Employment of local population; Sustainable development of green business (formation of clusters and development of value chain); Reassessing the eating habits, views and health of the local population (through the promotion of organic products); Supply of organic products to Georgian agricultural markets; Export growth; Attract diverse, solvent tourists from different segments and countries; Popularization and economic growth of the country; Development of educational-cognitive tourism, etc. That is why the development of agri-tourism should be encouraged in the country to promptly make new opportunities available to farmers, increase their awareness and master new skills, create green jobs, and improve the region’s economy. 


  1. Amin, M., & Baehaqi. (2020). LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH STRENGTHENING THE TOURISM, AGRICULTURE AND PROCESSING INDUSTRY SECTORS IN WEST LOMBOK DISTRICT, INDONESIA. Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences, 106(10), 188–197. https://doi.org/10.18551/rjoas.2020-10.21
  2. Anderson, W. (2018). Linkages between tourism and agriculture for inclusive development in Tanzania: A value chain perspective. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, 1(2), 168–184. https://doi.org/10.1108/JHTI-11-2017-0021
  3. Deere, C. D., & Royce, F. S. (2019). Provisioning Cuba’s Private Restaurants: Linking Tourism and Agriculture. Tourism Planning and Development, 16(6), 675–695. https://doi.org/10.1080/21568316.2019.1569120
  4. (Emily) Wu, T. chiung. (2018). Agriculture tourism and the transformation of rural countryside. In Tourism Geographies (Vol. 20, Issue 2, pp. 354–357). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2018.1434819
  5. Han, G., Akhmedov, A., Li, H., Yu, J., & Hunter, W. C. (2020). An interpretive study on sustainability in the link between agriculture and tourism: Tourist-stakeholder satisfaction in Tiantangzhai, China. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020571
  6. Kourgialas, N. N., Karatzas, G. P., Dokou, Z., & Kokorogiannis, A. (2018). Groundwater footprint methodology as policy tool for balancing water needs (agriculture & tourism) in water scarce islands - The case of Crete, Greece. Science of the Total Environment, 615, 381–389. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.308
  7. Laeis, G. C. M., Scheyvens, R. A., & Morris, C. (2020). Cuisine: a new concept for analysing tourism-agriculture linkages? Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 18(6), 643–658. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766825.2019.1624763
  8. Mao, N., Grunfeld, H., DeLacy, T., & Chandler, D. (2014). Agriculture and tourism linkage constraints in the Siem Reap-Angkor region of Cambodia. Tourism Geographies, 16(4), 669–686. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2014.915878
  9. Mei, X. Y., Lerfald, M., & Bråtå, H. O. (2017). Networking and collaboration between tourism and agriculture: food tourism experiences along the National Tourist Routes of Norway. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 17(1), 59–75. https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2016.1262514
  10. Ohe, Y. (2017). Assessing managerial efficiency of educational tourism in agriculture: Case of dairy farms in Japan. Sustainability (Switzerland), 9(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/su9111931
  11. Romão, J. (2020). Tourism, smart specialisation, growth, and resilience. Annals of Tourism Research, 84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2020.102995
  12. Sanches-Pereira, A., Onguglo, B., Pacini, H., Gómez, M. F., Coelho, S. T., & Muwanga, M. K. (2017). Fostering local sustainable development in Tanzania by enhancing linkages between tourism and small-scale agriculture. Journal of Cleaner Production, 162, 1567–1581. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.06.164
  13. Streifeneder, T. (2016). Agriculture first: Assessing European policies and scientific typologies to define authentic agritourism and differentiate it from countryside tourism. Tourism Management Perspectives, 20, 251–264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2016.10.003
  14. Su, M. M., Sun, Y., Wall, G., & Min, Q. (2020). Agricultural heritage conservation, tourism and community livelihood in the process of urbanization–Xuanhua Grape Garden, Hebei Province, China. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 25(3), 205–222. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2019.1688366
  15. Tchouamou Njoya, E., & Nikitas, A. (2020). Assessing agriculture–tourism linkages in Senegal: A structure path analysis. GeoJournal, 85(5), 1469–1486. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10708-019-10033-1
  16. Yuan, P., Liu, Y., Ju, F., & Li, X. (2017). A Study on Farmers’ Agriculture related Tourism Entrepreneurship Behavior. Procedia Computer Science, 122, 743–750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2017.11.432
  17. Zhao, A. (2021). Research on the innovation of coordinated development of tourism and agriculture in Liaoning Province based on low carbon economy. E3S Web of Conferences, 275. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202127502041