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Journal number 2 ∘ Levan kikilashvili Rusudan Kvaratskhelia

DOI:  10.36172/EKONOMISTI.2022.XVIII.02.L.Kikilashvili.R.Kvaratskhelia

Summary. In the countries of the South Caucasus, particularly in Georgia, there are great opportunities for the development of green technology-based business, as evidenced by the funding of hundreds of thousands of GEL provided by international donor organizations to strengthen rural communities. Along with all the critical priority activities, promoting greenhouses is becoming increasingly important, providing a solid foothold for thousands of potential beneficiaries to gain economic freedom and employ members of vulnerable communities. That is why Georgia has the opportunity, because of its natural-climatic conditions, to develop the country spatially in the Agri sector, which allows the continuous construction of new greenhouses to support the development of the country as bio, Agri, eco-tourism so that hundreds of bio-farms can be more active in organic production. Popularization among tourists, including the fact that the government needs to occupy its niche in offering organic products to world markets, so that food with high taste has always been and will be one of the outstanding aspects of Georgia in terms of primary consumption products in the quality standard. It is one direction of green business, an essential component, its strong pillar. Developing greenhouses as a green business can solve many rural, development-oriented farmers, restaurants, hotel businesses, tour operators, and those who care about promoting local natural or cultural wealth to attract tourists. The development of greenhouses can play a turning role in developing greenhouses in the country, in the country’s economy, on diversity tours, and attracting more and more tourists from different parts of the world. It should also be noted that the development of greenhouses unequivocally poses less of a threat to the so-called loss caused by poisonous mass chemicals, as it is a direction that includes the concept of environmental protection, love of nature, protection of natural resources.

Кеуwords Green Technologies,Green Business,  Health Promotion,Globalization,  Eco-Friendly Passive Solar Greenhouses


Many greenhouses are cultivated globally, one of them being a type. Modern Chinese type solar greenhouses are excellent solutions to solve a complex problem when you need to warm the area in winter and allow the plants to grow and develop continuously. The development of greenhouses and the production of organic products, with no toxins and chemicals, has a very significant effect, allowing the farmer to sell products at a reasonable price and be satisfied with current incomes because fresh produce is always more expensive than unhealthy fruits and vegetables are grown by mass production...

In recent years, Modern social enterprises are one of the strong links to support the development of the economy in the country, which is why a profitable legal entity helps both the beneficiary and potential employees earn a solid financial income. Why should potential entrepreneurs not think about starting this business? This case contributes to implementing environmental policy and saves electricity, gas consumption, etc. These details are crucial in greenhouses.

When developing a greenhouse, the farmer needs to follow the principles that will help him bring healthy products throughout the year. People who build a budget greenhouse will try to use as much technology as possible to save costs in the long run. It is essential to have a team of biotechnologists and agronomists who are always on call to help us achieve maximum well-being.

It is said that a standard greenhouse starts in 500 sq.m; it is possible to grow black cherry, red cherry, mustard baby, basil baby, and all those friendly plants that help each other bring the highest potential productivity in a specific time interval ...

There is a perfect solution when market segmentation is to determine when and at what time you will master different niches, can not, and it is complicated to cover all places from the beginning. Actions must be permanent and strictly written in time.


A large percentage of the Arab world land lies within the desert belt with infertile soil, high ambient temperature, low average rainfall, and a limited quantity of natural water for agriculture purposes. Under these environmental conditions, agriculture. The open field registers a low disappointing yield and is restricted to a few months of the year. Therefore, the utilization of greenhouses becomes necessary and sometimes is the optimum solution for such agricultural problems. Although the plants in nature grow under diverse environmental conditions, the three cardinal temperatures for net photosynthesis of different groups of plants are given in Table 1. Table 2 summarizes some suitable values of the environmental parameters that play an essential role in crop growth. At the same time, these values are essential in the design of the greenhouse interior design conditions. Greenhouses presently used around the world were developed initially for cold climates. The main design objective is to trap the most significant portion of the sun's energy. However, the problem is reversed when such greenhouses are used in hot climates and abundant sunshine. Extra expenses arise from the need to cool the greenhouses through evaporative coolers or other mechanical systems. The purpose of the present natural draft solar fan is to utilize abundant solar energy to ventilate and cool the greenhouse passively. The idea is to collect the sun's energy on a solar absorbing surface (facing south). Airflow around the solar absorbers is therefore induced upward due to buoyancy forces and the thermal chimney effect. The ventilated air is then extracted into the greenhouse from the other side (facing north) through a wet pad, thus producing air cooling through evaporation. [Fath, 1992]

When you are a social enterprise, you should never forget to get funding because you can help others develop in addition to you, so it is important to help the sector in the case of a greenhouse: Employment of vulnerable groups; In border regions; Empowering living farmers...

Latitudinal patterns for quantitative traits insects are commonly used to investigate climatic adaptation. We compare the cold resistance of the leafminer (Liriomyza sativae) pupa among populations distributed from tropical to temperate regions, incorporating the thermal overwintering limit of the insect's range. The patterns of cold resistance for northern and southern populations differ. The southern populations significantly increased their cold resistance with latitude, showing a latitudinal pattern independent of seasons, acclimation regimes, and assay methods. In contrast, the northern populations showed no stable patterns; they were always intermediate in cold hardiness between the low-latitude and high-latitude populations within the overwintering limit. Integration of these data with those of the biologically similar congeneric leafminer, L. huidobrensis, suggests that a pattern shift in stress tolerance associated with the overwintering range limit is probably a general adaptive strategy adopted by freeze-intolerant species that have a high-latitude boundary of distribution but can only overwinter and develop in protected greenhouses in harsh seasons. [Chen & Kang, 2005]

The continuous quest for new has compelled the world as a whole to initiate a drive towards innovation. It has been substantiated from the past that 'innovation' is the main driver for companies to prosper, grow and sustain high profitability. The concern now lies in how to innovate and how innovation processes can be managed. Chesbrough proposed and popularised a model for the management of innovation based on the need for companies to focus on innovation processes for creating business value. Both the product and process-based value is essential for organizations but creating sustainable value is also a way for companies to achieve competitive advantage. Companies are required to consider the social and focus on the environmental dimensions of the business activities to bring in sustainable value. [Mishra et al., 2014]

In recent years, environmental issues are increasingly becoming a concern, and various environmental strategies have been implemented at the building and city levels. Green building or high-performance building strategies is getting to be popular and enhanced in many cities today. However, the effect of wide-spreading green buildings at the city level is not clear from findings obtained from the perspective of individual buildings. In studying and planning effective building policies and measures, it is also essential to consider the characteristics of cities and the condition of their infrastructure. In this light, we carried out case studies and quantified the environmental load reduction and economic effects of environmental measures taken at the individual building level to elucidate their effects on the city level. From among the various parameters of environmental performance, this analysis focuses on water consumption in buildings and its effects on urban water and sewage systems as examples. [Yokoo & Oka, 2011]

The US's introduction of Green Revolution technology to countries of the South in the mid-1960s provoked extensive and fierce debate in the international arena. Was it possible for new high-yielding wheat, rice, and maize to end centuries of food insecurity? Did the dependence of these crops on costly inputs put them beyond the reach of the world's poorest farmers, and were there other effects of the technology that outweighed the benefits? Controversy on the impact of the Green Revolution (GR) continued for decades, but today the literature is quieter on the subject, reflecting more pressing contemporary concerns – the Gene Revolution, for example, instead. While academic debates may have moved on, the transfer of GR technology has been continuing, quietly, in many parts of the developing world, and now mature and well-adapted to new environments, it is central to agriculture in these areas. A reassessment of the longer-term effects of GR technology is thus timely, and this paper aims to evaluate the experience of 30þ years of GR technology in villages of Bulandshahr District, Uttar Pradesh, north India. [Baker & Jewitt, 2007]

Although the world has been reeling from a financial crisis, with repercussions being felt throughout the economy, developing countries in transition are expected to drive the world economy, growing on average by 5.6% in 2012. It has been forecasted by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) center that developing countries will contribute nearly 60% of world GDP by 2030. The energy sector acts as one of the essential building blocks to ameliorate the economy of a developing nation. It is reported in the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 that world energy consumption will increase by 47% from 2010 through 2035.  [Chauhan et al., 2013]

Green gram belongs to the family Leguminosae. Green gram has been one of the important pulse crops in India since ancient times, and it is believed to be a native of India and Central Asia. Legumes occupy an important place in human nutrition, particularly in India. Legumes are rich in proteins, complex carbohydrates (dietary fibers) and are an essential source of minerals and vitamins). In the Indian diet, legumes are considered the cheapest source of extra proteins. Green gram is known among grain legumes for its easy digestibility, low flatulence potential, and high protein content. It contains about 24 % protein, which is almost three times that of cereals. Bread is an important staple food product for many cultures, prepared by cooking dough from refined wheat flour, water, and other ingredients. In refining wheat into flour, the bran and germ are wholly or partially removed from the grain, the primary source of nutrients. Hence the bread prepared from refined wheat flour, posses low nutritional quality. Several studies reported the incorporation of different nutritionally rich ingredients to bread to improve its nutritional quality. Eissa et al. supplemented the legume seed flour to develop the nutritionally rich bread and biscuit. Serna-Saldivar et al. fortified wheat flour with defatted soya bean meal and sesame meal to increase the protein content and upgrade the bread's overall nutritional value. Bread can be supplemented with dietary fiber, including wheat bran, carob fiber, inulin and pea fiber, guar gum and modified celluloses, and β-glucans to develop the fiber-rich bread. [Indrani et al., 2015]

The greenhouse cultivation area in South Korea has dramatically increased with the Korean government's greenhouse modernization policy in the 1990s. The greenhouse cultivation area reached 51,787 ha in 2014 following the enlargement and corporatization policy for greenhouses. The total agricultural economic production in the country was 43 billion US dollars in 2014, and the horticultural industry accounted for approximately 28% of the total agricultural economic production. In South Korea, greenhouses have been constructed based on domestic greenhouse standards such as the "Design guide for greenhouse structures" (Rural Research countries, greenhouse standards originated over ten years ago, and wind pressure was measured using outdated experimental equipment. For these reasons, many conventional greenhouses collapse every year due to a variety of natural disasters. For example, Typhoon Muifa in 2011 was reported to damage an area of approximately 42.1 ha with a loss of 4.1 million US dollars. The Korean government recently announced a construction plan for new greenhouse complexes in 12 reclaimed coastal lands, including the Saemangeum reclaimed coastal land region. The wind characteristics of the reclaimed coastal land are quite different from that inland because of the prevalence of stable wind conditions near the seashore. The wind pressure on greenhouses built on reclaimed coastal land is higher than in other sites due to the high coastal wind velocity and atmospheric turbulence scale. For these reasons, revision of greenhouse design standards, especially for reclaimed coastal lands, is required to secure the structural safety of greenhouses in response to the robust wind environment. [Kim et al., 2017]

The earth receives energy from the sun mainly as visible radiation together with some shorter wave radiation. This heats the earth's surface, the energy balance of which is maintained by the emission of long-wave thermal radiation. Certain gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N20), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), ozone) strongly absorb and emit long-wave radiation, the downward component of such radiation heats the earth's surface, making it about 30°C warmer than if no atmosphere were present. This is the greenhouse effect, and these gases are referred to as greenhouse gases. The natural position is more complex, with feedback processes being fundamental. For example, an increase in temperature will increase evaporation which, as water vapor is itself a greenhouse gas, will intensify the warming (positive feedback). Nevertheless, the increase in water vapor will increase cloudiness and, depending upon the optical properties of the clouds, cause either reflection of incoming solar radiation – negative feedback - or trap infra-red radiation emitted from the surface – positive feedback. [Communication, n.d.]

Reduced consumption of oil and gas for greenhouse heating purposes is a prerequisite for the continued existence of horticulture. To secure its present state and further development, fossil fuels must be substituted by alternative energies, besides other energy-saving possibilities. Alternative energies for greenhouse heating are solar energy, low-temperature waste heat, heat pumps that gain heat from air and water, and burning straw and wood. When using solar energy for greenhouse heating, two main problems have to be solved: the change of solar radiation into heat energy and heat energy storage. The first can be reduced to three basic techniques, separate solar collectors, working as air- or water collectors next to the solar greenhouse collectors integrated into the greenhouse structure with air- and water collectors beneath the roof or a liquid filter flowing between the two panes of the roof the use of the greenhouse itself as a solar collector, taking surplus heat from the greenhouse into storage. [Vonzabeltitz1986, n.d.]

There are many agricultural situations dictated by climate, crop selection, etc., where commercial greenhouse production is presently the preferred agriculture mode. Unfortunately, the present cost and energy availability pose a substantial threat to the expansion and perhaps even the viability of many industry segments. Naturally, different combinations of energy problems arise from different agricultural production modes under different climatic conditions. The dual energy-conserving glazing systems we will discuss in detail here can be used effectively in conventional greenhouse agriculture. We feel, however, that the glazings will have their most significant potential impact when implemented into controlled environmental agriculture (CEA) greenhouse utilizing natural lighting. The capital costs for the glass, although not prohibitive, will be higher than conventional glass; hence the investment can be more easily justified in the high yield CEA greenhouse. [Silverstein, 1980]

Greenhouses provide intensive and efficient means of plant production. The overall area undercover is slightly increasing and in 1994, France had approximately 9600 ha of greenhouses, of which 3600 ha were under glass and 6000 ha under plastic. Plastic greenhouses are cheaper to purchase than glass and are more air-tight. Moreover, new types of plastic film are on the market, thermally efficient and have properties that inhibit condensation. Despite new climate monitoring techniques used by farmers, computerized climate control, dehumidification by heat pump, forced aeration, and simultaneous heating, there are circumstances under which condensation is unavoidable. In addition, to addressing energy saving concerns, modern greenhouses are increasingly air-tight. This reduces rates of air renewal and entails elevation of the relative humidity in the greenhouse. This elevation is problematic as condensation is produced on the cover and walls of the greenhouse. The formation of water droplets on vegetation promotes fungal diseases, and metal structures cause corrosion. [Feuilloley & Issanchou, 1996]

 peppers, cucumbers, and eggplants under their own brand names These groups were the first offering flexible, last-minute and year-round delivery, high-quality standards, certification, and "tracking and tracing" Another group of growers made delivery arrangements with different big exporters, wholesalers on a yearly basis , Some of these exporters also formed growers'associations in order to benefit from EU subsidies for marketing activities In developing their marketing strategy, growers'associations make decisions to sell through auction or contract negotiation, under producer or retailer brand, to specific wholesalers or retailers, individual products or packages of productsThe emergence of growers' associations is a response to the increasing differentiation of demand and supply on agri-food markets, Growers in associations are considered more flexible in terms ofmaking specific products for different outlets This flexibility results in the opportunity for growers to seize added value from wholesalers by making production demand specific+ Moreover, growers'associations generally have transaction security by means of contracts assuring product sale, while some of the newly established auctions no longer apply the traditional minimum price approach This flexibility could influence grower efficiency since flexibility is said to enhance chain performance With this slow but evolving change from a supply to a market orientation in Dutch horticulture, strategic policies are developed more and more from a marketing rather than production perspectivehis implies that growers' interests are no longer perceived to be the main interests that the Greenery takes into account Dissatisfaction over auction strategies, lack of influence over management decisions, and low prices have caused many growers to search for other marketing options. [Aramyan et al., 2006]

Conclusion and recommendations

It should be noted that the reviewed literature allows making important definitions correctly; there were many views years ago that a product grown in a greenhouse does not provide benefits; this is indeed the case if the non-seasonal species are brought in, in which case the farmer may lose essential vitamins and macronutrients., Because the seeds like precisely the temperature they need to grow naturally and bear fruit, this does not mean that the farmer should abandon using an energy-efficient greenhouse, as it allows many indicators to measure the specific result he wants to get in the long run. And plan to bring bio and organic products in what direction is better to continue the way.


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