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Journal number 4 ∘ Rusudan Kvaratskhelia Levan kikilashvili
Social Entrepreneurship Business Case - Competitive Advantages of Unique Georgian Puzzles and Educational Toys (In Caucasus)

Annotation. In October 2017, the Government of Georgia approved state standards and technical regulations related to preschool education. Several types of state standards were supported, including “State standard of early and preschool education,” according to which the child’s field of development, his physical and sensory development level is evaluated according to the extent to which it controls and uses the delicate muscles of the body in a coordinated manner. It arranges a simple puzzle, a simple picture, or a mosaic. In addition, they know that the United Nations recognizes the Human Development Index as a standard means of determining human development. Each person has their specific abilities. Intelligence is defined not only by abilities acquired from the moment of birth. It is the result of the further development of learning and thinking through the analysis and synthesis of information from the outside. As the horizon increases, human imagination develops and carries memory training out using various methods. One of the effective ways to build intelligence and the mind is through games and activities, including multiple puzzles and board games. Our project includes creating various educational-cognitive puzzles and board games for people of different ages, such as preschoolers and elementary school students, high school students, students, and any interested person. It built puzzles and games around curriculum and general education elements. A social enterprise is being created, which will employ representatives of the vulnerable group, and will take care of both the protection of the environment and the safety of people’s health.

Key words: puzzle, puzzle entertainment, board game, analysis, synthesis


The history of “puzzles” spans more than two centuries. People maintain interest in it even in the modern era when interactive games are relevant. What is the secret of the popularity of “Puzzle”?

It is known that the first “puzzle” purpose was not to entertain or play but to learn. Englishman John Spielberg offered schoolchildren a simple, at the same time fun way to study geography to make learning easier. This fact preceded the creation of the geographical map of the world in the 60s of the 18th century. The map was black and white, pasted on thin wood, and divided into many parts. Spielberg taught the students how to arrange the map correctly, and in the process, the children happily memorized and learned any complex geographical detail. People were interested in Spielberg’s invention. In the 19th century, they began doing puzzles using cardboard, making its price affordable. Today, there is a wide selection of “puzzles” on the market, both physical, simple, and large sets, and virtual, in applications, which people of all generations assemble.[1]

Any non-digital activity is easy to perform, intended for fun, and requires cognitive effort. Whether it has a practical purpose, some mathematical problems can be considered mental play and cognitive fun, including ancient issues. Many puzzles designed to develop cognitive skills include elements of creative problem-solving and reflective reasoning, which can be based on cognitive toys. People enjoy playing with cognitive toys, as evidenced by the popularity of „Sudoku,“ „Go,“ and other games. It is not just a recent phenomenon but a historical fact.

It is known that the Government of Georgia approved state standards and technical regulations related to preschool education in October 2017. The preparation of mandatory standards was a requirement of the law on preschool education, and the United Nations Children’s Fund assisted the government in its development. It has approved several measures, including the State Standard for Early and Preschool Education. In the middle of raising a child to 5 years old, the child’s development area, his level of physical and sensory development, is evaluated according to the extent to which it controls and uses the delicate muscles of the body in a coordinated manner. Among them, it arranges a simple puzzle (a three-part straight line or an insertion puzzle); Assembles a simple picture or a puzzle and mosaic consisting of 8-10 parts.[2]

Considering the above standard we have created puzzles and board games to promote proper child upbringing and education. Our project is based on John Spielberg’s approach. The primary purpose of creating “puzzles” is education, in particular, to study complex issues efficiently, with fun and play, to develop the ability to analyze and synthesize, to gain more in-depth knowledge, and the opportunity to put theory into practice.

“Puzzle“ is one of the exciting toys, entertainment, educational-cognitive tool for almost every age. First of all, let’s explain the meaning of “puzzle.” English puzzle is a toy “puzzle,” be it a rebus (pictorial puzzle), so-called “Sudoku,” or crossword (crossword puzzle). In its primary and original meaning, this word means “difficult problem,” “riddle,” and “puzzle.” They used the derived expression puzzled in the meaning of “confused,” “dizzy,” “stunned,” and others. “Puzzle” is a Georgian word included in Arnold Chikobava’s “Definitional Dictionary of the Georgian Language” and “Orthographic Dictionary of the Georgian Language.” It related the game to assembling an image broken into many fragments. “Puzzle” is a peculiar type of “puzzle,” which in English is called a jigsaw puzzle or jigsaw (Giorgi Meladze, Lexicographer).

“Puzzle” acquires an educational function and entertainment when various figures, photos, episodes, or landscapes with deep content are depicted. The mentioned factor is even more vital if informative-cognitive texts are attached to the puzzles. Differently delivered historical events, cultural inheritance Monuments, geographical boundaries, grammatical parts of different languages, formulas of mathematics, chemistry or physics, characters and fiction episodes, biographies of prominent figures, works of art, and many other cognitive puzzles are interesting for users of different generations. “Emotions and sensations obtained by puzzles and board games help to arouse interest in the subject, to gain excellent, valuable, practical and theoretical knowledge in a fun and playful way.

The “puzzles” created by us contribute to a much more exciting and different understanding of historical and cultural topics, natural science and earth sciences, green economy, and sustainable development issues. We have created thematic “puzzles” of different levels and complexity in biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, geography, economy, medicine, and tourism.

If a child loves nature, natural science, and life, “puzzles” on agriculture and natural science will become a source of excellent knowledge for him. Implementing modern technologies in the agricultural sector is one of the urgent issues. It is also vital for young people to thoroughly understand the problems of sustainable development and environmental security, the principles of a green economy, and the advantages of biologically clean technologies. The earlier the adolescents learn about the essence of biodiversity and ecology in general, as the role of biotechnologies in various sectors, the greater the chance of forming a socially responsible person in them. To better understand the essence of organic farms and permaculture to obtain biologically pure products, teenagers will study the essence of biocenosis, biodiversity, ecosystems, friendly and unfriendly plants, microorganisms in the soil, and beneficial and harmful insects. They will learn biological methods of combating plant diseases through fun and innovative puzzles. Also, we have created “puzzles” for the following purpose: to introduce plants with phytoremediation ability and the specificity of their action; To learn about the essence of composting and the negative side of the process of burning leaves or other agricultural waste; to learn about the possibilities of recycling waste and giving it a new life; To grasp the essence of energy efficiency and energy-efficient technologies, etc.

Memorizing rather tedious and challenging formulas is now much easier with the help of fun puzzles. A teenager for whom the procedures of mathematics, chemistry, and physics are a great difficulty will gladly remember them during the game with the help of 2D or 3D “puzzles.” Also, the knowledge gained in the direction of geometric figures and stereometry through 3D “ puzzles” is excellent.

It is also essential to learn geographical material with the help of puzzles. Our “puzzles” include details of modern geo-information systems, which makes the teenager interested in mastering modern technologies to see the world in particular better.

It has developed various educational and cognitive audio materials to better familiarize children with the Georgian cultural heritage and historical and ethnographic wealth, including the so-called “Treasure chest.” The academic “treasure chest” creates a variety of skills for the child, such as understanding and analyzing the text, segmenting and complex discussion of voluminous information, and exploring one specific event in different subject areas.

Puzzles are designed for teenagers, high school students, and all interested persons. In particular, “puzzles” and board games created for learning human anatomy, medicine, tourism, and different languages greatly simplify, renew, and diversify the learning process.

For the first time in Georgia, the mentioned “puzzles” include the individualization of Georgian regions. The serial edition of puzzles describes particular historical, geographical, cultural, and economic areas, as well as an overview of local, endemic species and traditional activities. We emphasize that the agro-tourism potential of each region is represented by size, taking into account individuality. This fact is essential for involving parents and family members in puzzles and board games with children. In addition to cognitive issues, parents and children like puzzles based on old Georgian animated films to remind them of their sweet childhood. Children take an example from their parents. If parents start assembling the “puzzle” themselves, the child will be interested in new entertainment and want to play it too. When it expresses his desire, the parent shows what the assembled mosaic looks like. When connecting the details, the parent must convey a positive emotion, ask the child for help, and then suggest that he try to solve the puzzle on his own.

We know that play plays a significant role in a child’s physical and psychological development. In the game process, the leading personal characteristics are formed, positively influencing the story of our correct thinking. The puzzle, first of all, develops the child’s logic. It thinks about whether the detail fits in a particular place. The mystery also develops the child’s imagination because it has to imagine a perfect picture and quickly select the necessary information. Especially at preschool age, when assembling “puzzles,” children develop motor skills and coordination of movements, which will help them easily hold a pencil and pen in their hands. Completing a “puzzle” requires willpower and time, which contributes to developing the following qualities: accuracy, attention, patience, and will. Thus, “puzzle” is valuable and essential for many reasons: it is a non-aggressive game; it expands the field of view; The child develops the ability to observe; it forms the habit of gathering scattered information; it improves hand movement, which is necessary for the general development of a preschool child; promotes the development of figurative thinking; calms the nervous system, develops the ability to concentrate; It allows parents to notice in time whether the child has difficulty distinguishing colors and shapes. Serial release of puzzles is planned. For children’s continuous development of visual memory, motor skills, and creativity, sequential “puzzles” of different complexity are created.

The social enterprise plans to develop a separate line for foreign tourists. Different types of items will be made by engraving symbols of cultural monuments and the intangible wealth of Georgia, which will contribute to increasing the country’s awareness outside its borders. The mentioned items will be our business card, which will make the visitor want to return to Georgia and get to know the country’s sights more fully, as well as spread the information to his relatives and fellow citizens.

Puzzles and board games create their realization possibility in hypermarkets, books, stationery, and of toys in stores.

The target audience of the project ensures the sustainability of the social enterprise. Direct users of the project are:

1. Children of preschool age (3 to 6 years old). Children will be able to assemble a mosaic puzzle, which is represented by many colorful and cheerful characters from Georgian cartoons and fairy tales.

2. School students (from the first to the seventh grade inclusive). In this case, the puzzle has an objective, more cognitive purpose. The mosaic depicts historical and geographical facts, biotechnologies and their fields of application, formulas that arouse interest in high-quality education;

3. High-class pupils and students. In this case, it is exciting to study and analyze various scientific issues with board games to find ways to implement the theory in practice.

This project, which creates significant wealth for society, has a social impact. Regarding social entrepreneurship, it will employ young people belonging to the following groups in the process of “puzzles” production: persons with disabilities, socially vulnerable families, large families, and displaced persons from the occupied territories. In today’s reality, population migration is observed not only from the villages of Georgia but also from many cities. The unemployment rate has increased, especially among young people. According to the statistical data of the first quarter of 2021, the activity level of women among job seekers is 21.8% lower than the same indicator of men. The wage gap remains a problem, with women’s wages being one-third of men’s average monthly wages. Employing the mentioned segment in the production of “puzzles” will contribute to the solution of the listed problem.

Business, based on its values, develops against the background of high involvement of society. Information actively _ Spread on social networks, photos, and in the form of videos. In the beginning, the demo samples, when tested, lasted for six months. The product was excellent. Students of the school showed interest in Pupils, as elementary and high school teachers, parents, and foreign tourists.

At this stage, Georgian, there is a free niche with high standards and quality in the Georgian market. In the direction of the products, which St values for children who exactly agrees with the requirements and needs. Interest in the product is aroused because it represents Georgian production.

It should be noted here that the “puzzles” are made of environmentally safe material, which ensures the protection of the environment and the safety of the user’s health.

The business was created by a team with many years of experience, with the distribution of functional and equally essential activities, which ensures the effective execution of the developed strategy and tactical steps, the reproduction of products on the market.

The advantage over the competitors is that there are no educational-cognitive puzzles of Georgian production that will simplify the learning of the school program of various subjects, which is an important issue. Therefore, the product is innovative. The business does not have a direct competitor, although indirect competitors can be considered companies that sell foreign-made “puzzles.” The target market is general, but our customers are much more diverse since the product is aimed at almost all ages. The advantage of the Georgian social enterprise is that it can adapt to the user’s interests, employ representatives of the socially vulnerable group and become a company that cares for them.

We offer 32, 64, and 106-piece “puzzles” on the market, which are created with a rather sophisticated design and attract customers. No seasonal characteristics in business activity will significantly affect the stable production of products.

Our internal capability matrix looks like this:

SWOT analysis, with the following criteria:

S (Strong):

Business management skills, experience, and knowledge of competitive advantage; innovative product; local production; diverse marketing; competitive price; high quality; time management; Company strategy that focuses on customer, product, place, and price; Certification.

W (weak):

Resources; absence of a permanent user at the initial stage; Business value.

O (Opportunity):

Information and research; IT skills; market development; new markets; export; development of new products; new technologies/services; cooperation/ business partnership/ contracts risk diversification; Balancing prices that will attract customers increase in sales volume; exploitation of new markets; Creation of new jobs.

T (threats):

Economic factors; political factors; environmental factors; social factors; international factors; legislative environment; Global financial crisis.

Products will be sold in B2B and B2C markets. A memorable Georgian brand is created with various puzzles, which contribute to forming a healthy thinking society.

Price policy based on market research will not be high at first; In the beginning, we will not capture the market completely; We will accumulate both the volume and variety of products; We will take powerful positions in the market; Providing high-quality service to customers is our priority; We use Georgian raw materials for the production of products.

The most significant profit from the company’s activity is reinvested in its development. Something will carry out and manage some social actions. As for the price policy, we have a market price. It is known that the customer is happy to pay for quality, trust, service, sensations, and emotions which exceed the cost.

Cooperation with public and private schools, educational centers, kindergartens, bookstore chains, stationery stores, and retail and wholesale shopping centers is planned to realize educational-cognitive, thematic puzzles and board games.

As already mentioned, foreign tourists are one of the target segments of the organization. Specific regions and cities have been selected for selling relevant products: Tbilisi, Batumi, Mtskheta, Sighnaghi, Kutaisi, Akhaltsikhe, and Zugdidi. In these cities, we mainly cooperate with souvenir and furniture shops.

Also, active marketing is planned through social networks, blogs, and various channels, where the user will travel with our news and make a targeted purchase.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Thus, in any game, a person develops particular abilities. “Puzzles” and board games are an excellent way to train the brain, its concentration, attention, and the ability to plan further actions. Thanks to the constant thought process, in addition to mental skills, the knowledge of intuition is also developed. Another effective method is games for the development of intelligence and spatial-logical thinking. “Puzzles” are interesting and exciting for adults. In situations of daily monotonous, automatic actions, the brain works on a “machine.”

It minimized the cognitive process. Changing daily habits and behavior is necessary, even for a short time. For example, to activate brain activity and give new connections between brain neurons, the best opportunity is to assemble “puzzles” by presenting minor details to connect, disassemble, build, and select the necessary information quickly and correctly. A teenager or a young person studying a curriculum of a particular subject with puzzles will remember the given material much more since knowledge is connected to specific emotions and positive feelings. Therefore, we recommend that the child get used to different puzzles early. Intelligence, memory, and attention are qualities a person needs throughout life. Without the development of the mind, they gradually begin to degrade, so it is vital to train the brain from an early age. We can absorb the most information at a young age and develop memory and intelligence. Mental activity is the ability to behave appropriately. Instead, it is an attempt to receive and apply knowledge in practice, to analyze and understand. Thanks to mental activity, a person can research, compare, and extract logical and semantic parts of received information; critical evaluation of data; think and reason based on the laws of logic and draw appropriate conclusions; generalization; figurative perception; Think abstractly to understand complex systems; focus on a specific case; creative decision-making to solve problems; Predetermining the probable course of events. The social enterprise produces Georgian, ecologically safe products, and representatives of vulnerable social groups will be employed.



  • Danesi M. “The puzzle instinct: the meaning of puzzles in human life.” 2004
  • “State Standards for Early and Preschool Education and Education” United Nations Children’s Fund and the Ministry of Education and Science. March 2018

[1] Danesi M. “The puzzle instinct: the meaning of puzzles in human life.” 2004


[2] “State Standards for Early and Preschool Education and Education” United Nations Children’s Fund and the Ministry of Education and Science. March 2018