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Journal number 2 ∘ Tengiz Kavtaradze Giorgi Kavtaradze

Expanded Summary

In the beginning of the 20th century advanced agricultural workers were worried that farmers were not aware of the results of scientific research. In order to demonstrate how their new technologies could help boost the harvest, the government has created a number of pilot forms and  involved in the local business, and contacted farmers' groups and hired advertising agents. In 1914 the Congress gave this idea a national scale by creating an "Agricultural Development Service". This service funded by both the state and the colleges, was renting agents and creating offices that would advise farmers and their families.

The farmer relied on a wide range of agricultural, technical, scientific research and advisory benefits and made decisions about the knowledge. This assistance was introduced in 1862, when the US Congress gare in disosal a plot of 5000000 hectares in individual states, each of which would have to establish at least one college teaching agricultural and technical sciences. This law, which was signed by President Lincoln, was the most equitable state act in the history of public education in America. Currently in these colleges, many of which have already been converted into universities, are taught a wide range of agronomic and similar disciplines - general farming, veterinary, fruit breeding, household, soil conservation, food conservation and world agriculture economics. Colleges and Universities equipped with alletment also belong to advanced scientific research agronomic centers in the United States. That's what they wanted to see in Congress when in 1882 the Law on Agricultural Research Stations in these colleges was adopted. These higher education institutions also constitute the co-operative agronomic service, which was created in 1914 and is functioning with great success. The organization of propaganda and introductory system of agricultural knowledge was also of great importance, helping farmers who had land plots in accordance with the law of the Homes. It is important to note that the Ministry has actively participated in the development of farmers' co-operative credit systems, which have been founded at the beginning of this century.

In 1900-1930, the Department of Agriculture also launched an intensive program of basic research work. It multilateral ly helped the farmers and, in general, the society. For example, pigs brought from England,and Evrope were interbreeded which swiftly reduced the cost of grain. Soils were tested to determine what types of fertilizers they needed to increase grain production. Other experiments were of crucial importance to hybrid seed, plant nutrition, in the struggle against plant and animal diseases, pest control.

In the 19th century, the development of agriculture played a role in industrialization of the United States. At the early stage, agriculture was mainly aimed at ensuring farmers' livelihoods and selling possible goods locally. Small industry development made it possible for the agricultural products to be sold.

In the middle of the 19th century, America's industrial revolution influenced the  development of agriculture and industry. Industry Development, initially transporting has great impact on the fact that the farmer has been able to export the goods to the market. Most of the authors of labor alleviation were from the village, former farmers who came to work in fabrics and factories in the city.

In 1929, President Herbert Hoover created the Federal Council of Farmers. He interfered directly in the supply and demand issues and the first attempt by the government to creat more economic stability for farmers was led ly him.

President Franklin Roosevelt is one of the first events when he became president in 1933, was the "Agriculture" Regulation Act, which was later adopted by the Congress. This law allowed the Minister of Agriculture the right to reduce production  farmers by voluntary agreement with farmers which were to payed the money, not to use the land. The money was collected by taxes paid by the consumers: in 1936 the Supreme Court declared this law unconstitutional because the production control program could not be used for food producers. Nevertheless, new laws were adopted immediately, through which the same objectives of soil rest and surplus were achieved based on the principle of land conservation. The Rusvelts administration believed that the improvement of the American land was not only the attempt of farmers' assistance to the expense of other citizens, but also the national interests of the country. Later the government provided farmers with loans for agricultural machinery, hybrid seeds and fertilizers.

In the United States, other measures have been developed to support farmers' families. In 1935, Congress established the Village Electrification Authority, which brought electric lines into villages. A were created by local cooperatives, which the federal government gave credit a power lines to villages. Ermers quickly discovered that electrical energy allowed them to significantly improve technology. By 1960, 97% of farmers had electricity. To help the farmers, there were also built ways to connect the farmers to the markets and villages could easily connect  big and small towns.

Thus, like the generalization of the experience of US innovative systems in the rural, a federal council of farmers should be established in Georgia. It would be directly involved in the supply and demand issues and the first attempt of the government led by it would be in to create more economic stability for farmers by using innovative systems in rural areas.

In order to create a network of agricultural and technical education in rural areas, appropriate study surveys should be given o state apartments and land. They must play a crucial role in terms of use of innovative systems, in rural research and in the preparation of subsequent generations of farmers.

Landslide and long periods of wind erosion have significantly reduced the fertility of soil in large parts of the small Shirak, Zilich, Great Shirak and other grain producing districts of Dedoplistskaro region. The land is depleted due to intensive use. The grain yield loweced to 600 kilograms (200 kg of seed material). Large quantities of grain crops were lost on the exposed lands as a result of hurricanes.

 To solve this problem, similar to the use of experiences of Us innovative systems the  land use and conservation policy should be implemented in Dedoplistskaro and other cereal producing districts. The government should decide that farmers need to be encouraged and educated about better use of land. Farmers should be provided with the help of free of charge services, or to provide cash for improvement of land like  the Roosevelt administration, the government should provide farmers with loans,  to store agricultural machinery, hybrid seeds and fertilizers and not only to buy.

Absolute majority of rural farmers own one hectare of land. For intensive use of these lands, sharing experiences of venture funding should be arranged pilot farms where they will study and advise farmers and families what kind of species, the variety and the number of crops can be obtained and economically favorable land on these land areas.