English / ქართული / русский /

Journal number 4 ∘ Ramaz Abesadze Shota Veshapidze


In the work are reviewed a spects of development of Economic Sciences in Georgia from its beginning up today. The attention is paid to the organizations and scientists who contributed significantly to the development of Economic Science in Georgia.

Keywords:Kolkheti Kingdom, doctrine of mercantilism, kalmasoba, physiocratic ideas, european economic values


Economic development in Georgia has deep century roots. In the 6-7th centuries BC agriculture and workmanship were developed and minted"kolkhuri tetri"in the Colchis Kingdom. Further the high level of development was reached by Iberia (The Kartli kingdom) which had commercial relations as with the neighboring as well as with distant countries. Interesting considerations from different spheres of economic activity are given in the Georgian historical, literary, philosophical and theological sources of that time. Economic views took scientific image only in 20s of XX century.

Economic views of feudal Georgia

The economic views deserving attention were created in feudal Georgia which formed a basis for creation and development mercantilist, physiocratic and other economic doctrines. From this point of view the following historical monuments are of interest:

"Hero in a tiger skin" of Shota Rustaveli (XII century). A high level of an economic thought is noted earlier, in particular the fact that economic doctrines of mercantilism, for centuries than formation of mercantilism appear.

Beka and Agbug's "Code of laws" (the XIV-XV centuries) is also a considerable source for researchers of mercantilism which contains questions, relevant for the present, on economy in general and, in particular, on agriculture, the industry and management of the financial relations.

Book by Giorgi V Brtskinvale (Brilliant) "Installment of the imperial yard" (14th century). There is visible, that trade activity already gets under government of "Minister of Finance" that corresponded to mercantilism and meant support of trade from the feudal monarchy; also the aspiration to legal regulation of state and financial activity is shown.

"Description of the Georgian Kingdom " of Vakhushti Bagrationi (XVШ century). In this capital work natural resources and in general economic capacity of Georgia are deeply investigated. Like "classics", first of all, production development, and then already trade is welcomed.

"Law" of Vakhtang the Sixth (1705-1708), contains interesting consideration about a debt, profit and rate of return, etc. The provided economic terms in his “Dasturlamali” (gamosagebi (payment), zarafi(the moneychanger, the banker), bazhi (trade payment), etc.), are relevant today as well.

Ioane Batonishvili's "Kalmasoba" (end of XVIII century). From the economic point of view mercantilist views that development of trade promotes both the progress of the cities, and enrichment of the country are stated.

Views of Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani (XVII century). On the one hand, they correspond tophysiocratic ideas (which were created in 50 years of the 18th century), and on the other hand, they areto similar views of classics.

Views of Aleksandre Amilakhvari (XVIII century). They contain mercantilist views, but partially correspond to the classical, including physiocratic ideas.

Economic views of “Tergdaleuli”

In the 60th of the 18th century when fight against feudal restriction joined “Tergdaleuli”(“Pirveli Dasi” led by Ilia Chavchavadze), the published row of interpretations of economic character with seldom criticism to protect free business. Economic works were published by Ilia Chavchavadze, Niko Nikoladze, Giorgi Tsereteli, Sergi Meskhi, Ivane Machabeli, etc. In the works devoted to problems of political economy, statistics, the credit, finance the ideas of the Western European and Russian economists were extended.

Ilya Chavchavadze laid the foundation for the theory of common basis of success, formulated his own doctrine of liberalism, the concept of welfare oriented on European liberal values, the ideology of Georgian variety of economic liberalism; created the study about the transfer of European and other countries civilized values and advanced experience to Georgia, their optimal synthesis.

Niko Nikoladze has made a big contribution to matter of studying and introduction in Georgia of the European values and laid the foundation of theoretical researches of finance, the industry and other topical issues of economy of Georgia.

The big contribution to formation and development of economic science was brought by creation of the Tbilisi State University. Originally economic disciplines were studied at philosophical faculty where the economic department, which of organizers were Ivane Javakhishvili and Filipe Gogichaishvili, was created. Together with opening of the university the department of political economy has been created, prof. Filipe Gogichaishvili was its founder and the first head.

It should be noted that in Georgia economic views and researches have accepted system character in Ivane Javakhishvili and Filipe Gogichaishvili's works on which ideasa whole pleiad of scientists - economistsgrew up. Especially It should be noted the activity of the academician Paata Gugushvili who made a big contribution to formation and development of economic scientific schoo in Georgia.

Ivane Javakhishvili has made a big contribution to development of economic science having published the early considerable economic studies, having created a course of economic history of Georgia, having published the book "History of the Georgian Nation", etc.

Filipe Gogichaishvili also stood at the origins of the Georgian economic science. He was the first scientist-economist who returned home at the beginning of the 20th century from Germany with doctor's degree and made the significant contribution to business of development of account and statistics; he by right is considered the founder of statistics and statistical science in Georgia.

At the department of economy and then at faculty of economy of the Tbilisi State University many professors grew up,who have made the significant contribution to development of economic science in Georgia, in particular: Giorgi Adeishvili, Rozeta Asatiani, Klimenti Achelashvili, Valerian Bakhtadze, Iosif Bajadze, Alexander Bajelidze, George Bakradze, Sergi Beradze, Pavle Chagelishvili, Vasil Chantladze, Mikhail Chikviladze,  Givi Chanukvadze, Tengiz Chiabrishvili, Dimitri Ciskarishvili,  Bikenti Gabidzashvili, Giorgi Gaganidze, Givi Gamsaxurdia, Gia Gamkrelidze, Giorgi Gekhtman, Avtandil Giorgobiani, Giorgi Gvelesiani, Revaz Gogokhia, Levan Gokieli, Givi Goshadze, Paata Gugushvili, David Dzneladze, Niko Iashvili, Petre Jgenti, Emzar Jgerenaia, Revaz Kakulia, Levan Kharazi, Gedeon Khelaia, Jemal Khaxniashvili, Merab Khmaladze,  Aleqsander Kuchuxudze, Nija Khurtsidze, Shota Kistauri, Dimitri Koridze, Niko Koiava, Larisa Korganashvili, Roin Kutidze, Parmenas Lemonjava, Murtaz Magradze, Ketevan Marshava, Gabriel Megrelishvili, Iakov Meskhia, Irakli Mikeladze, Giorgi Mshvildadze, Gaioz Nadirashvili, Jemal Pachkoria, Nugzar Paichadze, Archil Pantskhava, Giorgi Papava, Vladimer Papava (senior), Vladimer Papava, Irodion Qvachaxia, Otar Sagareishvili, UUshang Samadashvili Nikoloz Tkeshelashvili, Grigol Todua, Mirian Tukhashvili and etc

Now at faculty successfully conduct the activity professors: the decan of faculty Teimuraz Beridze (who has made a powerful contribution to development of problems of the economic theory, postcommunist transformation of economy and  economy of Caucasus and Georgia), the former and real heads of department professors: IurI Ananiashvili, Simon Gelashvili, Revaz Gvelesiani, Irakli Kovzanadze, Elguja Mekvabishvili, Davit Narmania, Avtandil Silagadze, Demur Sichinava, Nugzar Todua, Teimuraz Shengelia, Nodar Khaduri, Elena Kharatsbadze, Eter Kharaishvili, Ioseb Khelashvili etc.

The big role in development of science in general and, including, economic science, was played by creation of Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR (1941) with research institutes of a different profile. Academicians and corresponding members in the field of economic science are:

Irakli Mikeladze. Academician of Academy of Sciences of Georgia (1969). First economist academician. The main sphere of his scientific research was the economy of industry. He has made a big contribution to development of theoretical and practical questions of planning of the national economy, his works are devoted also to specialization and complex development of the national economy of the Georgian SSR.

Paata Gugushvili. Academician of Academy of Sciences of Georgia (1974). The special merit belongs in development of theoretical and practical problems in questions of political economy, history of a social and political thought, in development and planning of the national economy, sociology, demography, bibliology, social and economic development of Transcaucasia and Georgia.

Avtandil Gunia. Academician of Academy of Sciences of Georgia (1979). His works are devoted to rates and proportions of economic growth. In the last years of life actively he worked on the concept of economic independence of Georgia in the conditions of transition to the market relations. He investigated prospects of mutually advantageous cooperation with the USA and other economically developed countries.

Vasili Chantladze. Academician of Academy of Sciences of Georgia (1979). On the basis of fundamental studying of views of Shota Rustaveli and Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani confirmed that the Georgian theoretical and applied economic thought corresponded to the processes happening in world economy. His contribution to studying the theory and history of finance of prereform East Georgia of the 19th centuryis considerable.

Vladimer Papava. Academician of National Academy of Sciences of Georgia (2013). It should be noted his special contribution to elaboration and creative development of questions of the economic theory and mathematical modeling of economy, macroeconomic, the theory of post-communist transformation of economy and economy of Georgia and the Caucasus. He has developed the theory of post-communist transformation of economy under the name "necroeconomics" which has wide recognition. He has also created bases of Laffer-Keynesian synthesis. and the Economies without Taxes model has been constructed, indexes of tax corruption, etc. have been developed. Original considerations ofV. Papava are published in many editions in the USA, in the countries of Europe and Asia having in an impact-factor. He holds a specific place in development of economic science of Georgia, her promoting and distribution on the international scene for the last three decades.

Avtandil Silagadze. Academician of National Academy of Sciences of Georgia (2013) who has made a special contribution to development of theoretical and practical questions of history of economic thought and transformation of economy of Georgia of the Post-Soviet period and also a big contribution both in development of national economic doctrines (Ilya Chavchavadze, Niko Nikoladze), and in their edition in English, in representation and acquaintance to the international community. Also he in the mid-nineties, for the first time in the history of Georgia (together with the prof. Anzor Totadze) analysed,  grouped and published full statistical data on names and surnames, widespread in Georgia. His works are published in the USA, Germany, Sweden, Russia, some of them are entered in the list of educational literature of some foreign universities, including the USA.

Valerian Melkadze. Corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of Georgia (1979). He created the latest direction in economic science. He was one of founders of regional economy; on the example of Georgia in the conditions of the USSR the first who developed methodology and a method of calculation of national income, than he created a real picture of economic capacity of Georgia and its application.

Leo Chikava. Corresponding member of National Academy of Sciences of Georgia (1997) who made a thorough contribution to elaboration and development of various spheres of economy (the industry, service, etc.), also methodological and applied problems of demographic science.

The special role in development of economic science belongs to research institutes:

The Institute of Economy of Academy of Sciences of Georgia (1944), now is called Tbilisi State University Paata Gugushvili Institute of Economics. In the Soviet years development of separate problems of socialist economy and also terminological and demographic questions was the main subject of the Institute. Now the subject of the Institute covers problems of theoretical and applied nature of improvement of functioning of market economy. academicianPaata Gugushviliwas the founder and the first director of the Institute: the following: academician Avtandil Gunia,  academician Vladimer Papava, professor Giorgi Tsereteli (his contribution to development of economic-mathematical, economic and ecological and macroeconomic problems and the economic theory, also problems of formation and development of market economy is considerable), now the director of the Institute is professor Ramaz Abesadze (who has made the significant contribution to development of problems of the industry, macroeconomics, economy of environmental management and environment protection, formation and development of market economy,problems of theoretical and applied nature of economic development and economic regress). Among other staff of the Institute it is necessary to mark out professors: Iovel Asatiani, Valerian Bakhtadze, Iosif Bajadze, Givi Bedianashvili, Sergi Beradze, Teimuraz Beridze, Aleksandr Bregvadze, Mikhail Gvelesiani, Kirile Gogoberidze, Philipe Gogichaishvili, Revaz Gogokhia, Valerian Datukishvili, Dursun Diasamidze, David Jangulashvili, Amiran Jibuti, Mikhail Jibuti; Niko Iashvili, Akaki Kakabadze, Mikhail Kakhetelidze, Luarsab Karbelashvili, Tinatin Kurdadze, Nunu Kistauri, Dimitri Koridze, Paata Leiashvili, Valerian Melkadze, Roman Mitaishvili, Apolon Nutsubidze, Giorgi Papava, Vladimir Papava, Mikhail Roketlishvi, Archil Stepanishvili, Avtandil Sulaberidze, Ushangi Samadashvili, Vasil Chantladze, Tamaz Chikvaidze, Leo Chikava, Archil Tetrauli, Nikoloz Tkeshelashvili, Mikhail Tokmazishvili, Tinatin Chkheidze, Raphael Kharbedia, Bekirbi Khasia, Candidates of Economic Sciences: Robert Aburjanidze, Otar Avalishvili, Tamaz Akubardia, Tsiala Benashvili, Gia Bregvadze, Shalva Burduli, Merab Gvelesiani, Lili Gvenetadze, Nata Davlasheridze, Lina Datunashvili, Gulnaz Erkomaishvili, Bondo Zarnadze, Nukri Zakariadze, Nazira Kakulia, Eter Kakulia, Bidzina Kelenjeridze, Temur Kochiashvili, David Kurtanidze, Valentina Mishina, Shura Margvelashvili, Marina Muchiashvili, Vladimer Papava (Sr.), Sergo Soselia, Zurab Soselia, Nodar Ulumberashvili, Natia Shiolashvili, Marina Tsutskiridze, Roman Kharbedia, Tengiz Khoshtaria, etc. Now the former and current managers of departments, the doctors of Sciencesare distinguished by their productive work: Giorgi Berulava, Vakhtang Burduli, Alfred Kuratashvili, Roland Sarchimelia Aziko Sisvadze and Candidates of Economic Sciences: Nanuli Arevadze, Nana Bibilashvili, Tea Lazarashvili, Iza Natelauri, Zurab Revishvili, Tengiz Kavtaradze, Mamuka Khuskivadze, Revaz Javakhishvili and also professors Rozeta Asatiani and Murman Kvaratskhelia, etc.

Research institute of economy and planning of the national economy at the State planned committee of Georgia (1963). At Institute scientific research was conducted on topical issues of economy, planning and management, At different times its founder Valerian Melkadze, Kandid Charkviani (his works are generally devoted to history of development of economic branches, in particular the industry, power industry in Georgia),Sergo Sanadze (works on the problems of interseqtoral balance).  Valerian Advadze (his works are devoted to problems of history of the national economy), Yakov Meskhia (his works are devoted to problems of management and forecasting of economy), Nodar Chitanava (his works are devoted to problems of transition of national economy to market economy, also problems of relationship of economy and the state during a transition period), Sergo Sanadze (works on problems of interindustry balance). It should be noted works of employees: Otar Georgobiani, Shalva Gogiashvili, Ambrosi Grishikashvili, Ketevan Dadiani, Omar Vashakidze, David Iakobidze, Revaz Kakulia, Mamulo Kekelidze, Gia Malashkhia, Domentia Mouravidze, Giorgi Papava, Nugzar Santeladze, Nazi Pirtskhalava, Guram Kupunia, Nizhi Khurtsidze, Tamaz Chikvaidze, Demur Chomakhidze, Leo Khaburdzania, Elene Khoshtaria, etc. The institute functioned till 2006.

Research Institute of finances. The only scientific institution of an economic profile which has been created after restoration of the state independence of Georgia (1992). The institute conducted scientific research on topical issues of the financial and budgetary policy, monetary and credit and currency policy, account, the analysis, audit and financial and economic forecasting. Directors of Institute were professors:Iakov Meskhia, prof. Revaz Basaria (his works are devoted to financial and payment problems). Among other employees it should be noted works of: Jemal Shatirishvili, Valerian Zurabishvili, Leo Khaburdzania, Eduard Tsiramua andother. The institute functioned till 2007.

Institute of demography and sociological researches of Academy of Sciences of Georgia (1991). Now Institute of demography and sociology at the State university of Ilya. The main scientific direction of the Institute is demography and social and economic transformation of family in the conditions of the newest type of reproduction of the population. The director and the founder of the Institute was Leo Chikava, now the director is the prof. Avtandil Sulaberidze (the sphere of his research are the problems of demographic behavior of the population at the present stage are). Works of staff of Institute should be noted: GiaTsuladze, Elguja Menabdishvili, Anzor Totadze, Vaja Lortkipanidze, etc.

Institute of economy and organization of agriculture (1958) which in the subsequent is renamed into Institute of agrarian economy (2005). The institute worked on many problems of agricultural production, directors were professor Andro Nijaradze, Petre Jgenti (his works are devoted to problems of placement and specialization of agricultural production, Vakhtang Papunidze (generally he worked on problems of an intensification of agricultural production), Vakhtang Burkadze (his work are generally devoted to problems of economic assessment of the earth), Omar Keshelashvili (he worked on problems of specialization, intensification, forecasting and management of agricultural production), academic doctor of economy Avtandil Lapachi (he studies questions of economy of the food industry). Among other staff it should be noted works of: Otar Alekoshvili, Robert Andguladze, Giorgi Dogonadze, Otar Tatishvili, Niko Chincharauli, Ivane Janiashvili, etc. The institute functioned till 2011.

In development of economic science the significant role played the edition of magazines: Ekonomisti( the editor-in-chief, prof. RamazAbesadze), the printed and electronic magazine is published by TSU Paata Gugushvili Institute of Economyand indexed in a big searching electronic base –ERIH), "Economy and Business" (the editor-in-chief, prof. Revaz Gogokhia, the editor Tamaz Zubiashvili), the magazine is published at TSU faculty of economy and business .The significant role played the edition of magazines: “Achali Ekonomisti” (the editor-in-chief, prof. Loid Karchava), “Business engineering” (chief editor, prof. Alexander Sichinava), “Ekonomika” (editor-in-chief, prof. Rezo Shengelia), “Social Economics” (the editor-in-chief, prof. Vakhtang Datashvili), “Metsniereba da Tskhovreba” (the editor-in-chief, prof. Revaz Javakhishvili). “gadasachadebi” (the editor-in-chief, prof. David Jalagonia). Works of the Georgian and foreign erudite economists are published in these magazines.

For creation of basic researches and for introduction of the significant contribution to development of economic science in Georgia the state awards group of professors (1975): Grigol Buachidze, Gia Malashkhia, Valerian Melkadze, Petre Zhgenti, Nugzar Santeladze, Kandid Charkviani and group of scientists (2004): Yuri Ananiashvili, Klementi Achelashvili, Iakov Meskhia, Vladimer Papava, Avtandil Silagadze, Giorgi Tsereteli.

Now in the leading higher education institutions of Georgia Doctors of Economics professors: successfully conduct the activity.: Anzor Abralava, Vladimir Akhalaia, Niko Bakashvili, Evgeny Baratashvili, Lali Chagelishvili, Niko Chikhladze, Vladimir Glonti, Levan Grigalashvili, Karlo Gurtskaia, Merab Kakulia, Teimuraz Kandelaki,  Revaz Kharebava, Paata Koguashvili? Revaz Lordkipanidze, Gia Malashkhia, Revaz Manvelidze, Ramaz Otinashvili, Solomon Pavliashvili, Vakhtang Sartania, Milord Sichinava, George Tsaava, Shota Veshapidze etc.


Asatiani R. 2014.Small encyclopedia of modern economy. TB., Siakhle. (in Georgian);

Metreveli, R., 1972. Outlines from history of feudal Georgia. TB. (in Georgian language);

SilagadzeA., Doctors of Economics. TB., "Innovation", 2010 (in Georgian);

SilagadzeA., 2005.  Encyclopedic dictionary of economy. Tb., "TGU Publishing house" (in Georgian);

G. Chanukvadze. , 2001. Retrospective of the Georgian economic thought. Tb., "Pirveli stamba" (in Georgian);

GugushviliP., 1961, Economic science. In the book: "Science in Georgia for 40 years". Tb. (in Georgian);

Silagadze A., 2010. Aspects of economic doctrines in Georgia. San Francisco; Georgian SSR, 1991.  Encyclopedic reference book. TB., "GES".

[1] The work is prepared on the basis of indicated literature