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Journal number 4 ∘ Tengiz Verulava
Health System Reforms in the US: Individualism and Universalism

Expanded Symmary

On April 1, 2014 came into effect one of the key elements of health care reform, initiated by Barack Obama - compulsory health insurance for individuals. From now on, all uninsured Americans must purchase a medical insurance policy under the threat of fines from the state.

It has been over 4 years since, both in the United States passed a law on the reform of the health insurance. Since the reform continually stalled, encountering opposition resistance, technical difficulties, trials and lack of understanding on the part of a significant part of American society.

The main objective of the reform of Barack Obama was the expansion of coverage of the population with health insurance, as well as improving access to health services.

The law on the protection of patients and access to health care (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - ACA) 3 was adopted in March 2010, after a long debate in Congress due to the resistance of the Republican opposition. He is known by the official abbreviation ACA and unofficial - Obamacare, which was widely circulated in the media. This law marks a serious health care reform, in fact the first since the 60s. the last century, when public health programs have been created for the poor and pensioners - Medicaid and Medicare.

Among the developed countries, the United States of the world - the only one which never existed mandatory health insurance and public health. Most of the population uses the services of private health insurance. Contrary to popular opinion in the United States is quite active and valid public health in the form of medical programs, but it is selective in nature and applies only to certain categories of mostly senior citizens (on which propagates the state Medicare program) and the poor (the Medicaid program).

Reform has received very mixed assessment in US society. Democrats generally supported it, while Republicans spoke strongly against. In their view, such a re form will only be an additional tax for individuals and businesses, and will further increase the cost of insurance and public expenditures. In this case the main problem - the high cost of medicine - is resolved.

These polls show that Americans in 2011-2012. divided almost equally on the question of the attitude towards health care reform initiated by Barack Obama. Low-income citizens and ethnic minorities generally supported it, while the wealthier segments of the population opposed.

Giving a final assessment of the reform is too early. However, already in 2013 it became clear that the medical costs (both from citizens and companies buying private insurance, and for the state, expanding health programs) only increased during the reform. It seems that in the coming years they will grow even more.

Keywords: US health care reforms, universal healthcare, universal care.