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Journal number 1 ∘ lina Datunashvili
Measures to develop some cultures and fields of plant-growing in Georgia


The article studies and analyzes real situation of some cultures of plant growing in Georgian agriculture: cereals (wheat, maize) and tech crops (sunflower, tobacco), potato, and fruit growing: - seedlings (apples, pears), kernel and nuts (hazel nuts, nuts and the factors that affect them). The focus is on the ways and measures proposed in the direction of further development of these cultures the consideration and practical realization of which  will significantly increase in Georgia  the production of planted products discussed in the article.

Keywords: agriculture, cereals, wheat, maize, tech crops, sunflower, tobacco, potato, kernel, nut fruit.


Agriculture in Georgia is a priority sector of the country's national economy, as it provides the country's population demand for food and the industry - for raw materials. For known reasons (military, economic and social processes) the field has not yet come out of the crisis. In addition, there are a number of factors affecting the present state of agriculture: farms are crushed and natural. There is a lack of agricultural equipment and a high price of fuel-lubricant materials, which significantly contributes to the low level of use of existing techniques. In such conditions, the role of manual labor in rural areas is high, and the financial opportunities of farmers are limited. Due to the above: food production and consumption in the country, country's food independence, quality of food supply and import conditions, as well as food quality and their ecological safety are low.

Because the main parameters of agriculture development in Georgia are low and characterized by decreasing trends in years, we may note that food sector in Georgia can not provide products that meet the requirements of physiological norms of population.

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From the main fields of national farming agriculture has a special role and place. Despite the sustainability of the industry, it has not yet come out of crisis since the last 15 years. Evidence is the fact that in 2002-2016 the number of cultures received from these areas decreased from 577 thousand ha to 240 thousand hectares of agricultural crops, which we believe is the result, together with other reasons, of the destruction of public farms and hasty agrarian reform, owing to which in Georgia small peasant farms have been formed which are focused by their natural character on  personal consumption and do not provide opportunity for development of  industrial production. In order to mitigate the problem it is necessary:

_ To concentrate fragmented areas as a result of land privatization by creating cooperatives, partnerships, joint stock companies and other forms, where the latest technology will be used effectively, which we believe will significantly reduce a high proportion of manual labor and the natural form of agricultural production will be gradually changed by commudity production;

-  To support the development of cooperatives, partnerships, joint stock companies and other forms of agriculture which should be recognized as strategic direction of agro-policy of the Government of Georgia;

- Land as the main means of development of agriculture is crucial for further advance of agriculture in the country. Currently, the agricultural land area is characterized by a decrease for various reasons. In addition to the use of agricultural land for a number of needs, such as roads and bridges, construction of various buildings, gas and oil pipelines, and other remaining agricultural land resources has currently an acute nature;

- A large part of the land is degraded, erosive, dehydrated and deserted. In order to solve this problem it is necessary to reconstruct the existing irrigable lands and dry landed areas.

- Implementing timely agrotechnic activities;

- Restoration of the system of croprotation as far as possible;

- Use of organic and mineral fertilizers at dosages and timelines;

In spite of the decrease in production of agricultural output in the country, after the production of actually produced products is required:

- The existence and functioning of the production facilities, packaging, industrial processing enterprises and the activity of highly organized distribution services.

 In the area of ​​grain and cereal-leguminous crops, one-year crops decreased from 386.4 thousand hectares to 180,0 thousand hectares, i.e. 206.4 thousand hectares in 2000-2013.

Wheat and corn culture has one of the leading roles in the regions of Georgia among grain and cereal-leguminous cultures.

During the last 15 years wheat harvest was the highest by regions in 2001 and 2003 when 306,5 and 225,4 thousand tons of wheat were produced in Georgia, owing to the increase of average wheat output by 2.7 t / ha and 1,9 t accordingly. However, it should be noted here that in the years of high harvest of wheat it was difficult to realize it, partially by high self cost of wheat  produced and its high price, which was higher  than the price of imported wheat and flour and high quality  wheat produced in the country in large parts has been used as a fodder. These and other factors caused frustration of wheat producing farmers to some extent, and in later years they had been influencing wheat production decrease.

Like in the whole world, in Georgia, too, there is a great need for wheat and maize as the food and forage culture. It should be noted that in the last 20 years the price of one kilogram of corn flour in Tbilisi markets does not exceed 70-90 tetri. In the spring of 2007, one kilogram of maize flour was 1,50 lari and from 2012 till now the price is two lari. Increasing prices on maize flour, we believe was conditioned by the  increasing demand on it and the inflationary process as well.

In recent years, developed countries widely use grain cultures to mitigate the acute energy problem in order to gain energy-efficient ethanol, which is used instead of gasoline in internal engines. In recent years, there has been a significant rise in the price of wheat and maize, mainly by the increase of consumption of grains by some of the Asian populations and the use of these products in large quantities for energy purposes. The use of these crops for energy purposes (fuel consumption) will be increased in the future, which will significantly facilitate the price increase for these cultures. Increasing the prices on grain crops will result in the advancement of prices for breeding products.

In 2001-2003, a high harvest of grain crops in Georgia suggests the existence of large reserves in the production of these cultures, which should be effectively used by grain-producing farmers, as grain production is regarded as the basis for the development of food security and other sectors of economy for all countries of the world. Therefore, we should  increase cereal cultivation in Georgia in order to satisfy the needs of the population of the country on the above mentioned food. Along with the increasing grain production, farmers should have solid guarantees for realizing the product, and we believe the introduction of contracting system will be helpful.

Over the years among tech crops in Georgia the production of essential oils, sunflowers, tobacco and others have been popularized.

Because the demand on sunflower seed produced in the country was low and its realization was breached, its production was reduced. The picture has changed recently. Increased prices on food products, including imported oil, will help boost local production:

- In order to press sunflower oil in Kakheti region, small enterprises, equipped with new technologies, should be built. The businessmen should be interested in this issue, as the sunflower seed produced in the country and the oil made from it is ecologically much cleaner than those products from other countries.

For many years, high quality tobacco is brought in Georgia, whose crops are mainly located in the highlands of Adjara in Keda, Shuakhevi and Khulo; Kvemo Kartli - Marneuli; Kakheti region - Lagodekhi districts.

Tobacco-growing is a high-income sector, so the interest of tobacco producers in the country is great for the development of the field. Tobacco produced in Georgia is distinguished by the best aroma, abundant harvest, high quality and low content of nicotine. Subsequent development of tobacco growing depends on the businessmen interested in this sector and their investment in the field.

Potato production is on one of the most honorable places in the world after wheat production. It is a product of strategic importance that is due to its high nutritional value and versatility.

For the sake of further development of potato growing, we consider it necessary to provide the population of the regions with high-profile varieties of this culture to improve potato production:

- For this purpose it is necessary to develop specialized seed and nursery farms.

- It is also necessary to create service centers that will purchase agricultural products on the site at the acceptable price of farmers, and they will be given the opportunity to pay them both in terms of material expenses and time-saving. In order to avoid the losses caused by the storage of potatoes, their transporting costs and their sustainability in the warehouse, we think - it is rational and appropriate to build, workshops equipped with new technique on the areas of this culture to produce starch and other products from  potatoes.

 In order to improve the situation in agriculture and further development of the field, the attention should be paid to the improvement of sectoral structure. In the near future, the share of the cultures and the fields that will maximize the demand of the country's population for food must be increased. At this stage, the growth of grain cultures should be of particular interest at all levels, as there are all conditions and opportunities for further development of this sector in Georgia. It is also added that in recent years the demand for grain has grown in the world and accordingly the price, too. This process is irreversible for various reasons. Therefore, by increasing the local production of grain crops, we must achieve the satisfaction of population demand for this type of food at a certain degree.

- At the modern stage of market economy the role of state must be defined in differencial appronch  to agricultural sectors, which will be expressed in the concentration, formation and practical realization of measures and priorities from the state.

Due to the natural conditions, harvesting has been the most developed field in centuries in Georgia. The country with rich traditions of farming has since become an united garden of fruit trees, which in due course deserved admiration and appreciation of foreign travelers.
The massive cultivation of the first industrial gardens in Georgia began in the 30s of the last century.

The field of horticulture, viticulture and winemaking was founded in Georgia in the direction of this sector, in which the Scra, Telavi and Kareli experimental  stations were established. Together with solving a number of problems, these institutions have been actively involved in identifying local perspective varieties of fruit trees, tests of foreign varieties and new varieties. Together with the above organizations, the Research Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences and Chair of the harvesting of the Institute of Agriculture of Georgia served the field. The Georgian breeders have grown high-quality apple varieties: Goruli Sinapi, Exhibition Iveria, Georgia's Pioneer; Pear Aisi, Scra Melted; Peach - Nobati, Goruli Early, Eristavi Pink, Pioneer and others. For the early 70s, 25 nursery farms were planted in Georgia, where about 4,5-5 million saplings were produced annually.
In the fruit structure  the share of the root of the seed fruit (apple, pear) is high. The native seed variety is characterized by stamina, transportability and storage.

For the development of the industrial varieties of fruit seedlings, there are a number of conditions required to meet: prior to growing; Have the ability to adapt to environmental conditions; Be distinguished with abundant and high quality crops; It should not be a year; Must have a high commodity output; Ability to fight against diseases and pests; Must Provide the normal size and color of the fruit and the tree crown must give its well-being.The protection of these conditions ensures high profitability of the industrial garden, high levels of labor productivity and low cost of production.

Due to the natural conditions, seed fruit (peach, plum, cherry, sweet cherry,wild plum) is common in almost all regions of the country. In recent years production of fruit (except peach) in Georgia decreases.Nut  fruits are more or less spread in almost all regions of Georgia. Unlike other types of fruit, the nut fruit production in the country grew significantly in 2000-2016.last period hazel-nut  has taken special significance as an export culture, mainly located in Guria, Imereti, Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti and other regions. This process is visible in every nut producing region.

The natural conditions of Georgia create the possibility for  fruit to be more or less common in almost every region of the country.We consider it appropriate for development of the harvest:- In areas of harvesting, the area of ​​the fruit tree, must be mostly less, labor-intensive, with high-productive semi-dwarf plants the density of which must  not exceed 320 trees per hectare. This kind of garden is in 4-5 years of operation. In terms of economy, cultivation of these gardens is expensive, because they require great attention to both-drip irrigation and permanent care in the direction with regard of timely agro-techniques. In spite of this, the kind of low-sized gardens of the kind should be given priority with respect to rapid recovery of harvesting.

- During the formation of fruit gardens, it is of great significance to cross the trees and give them less palatable palm-shaped form. In developed countries, special attention is paid to the process of formation of trees in such form. With masterly shaping, gardeners are more easily able to adjust the buds on the branches, regulate the size and shape of the buds.

- The service of rural farmers should be replaced in accordance with transition period to market economy. It is desirable to form consulting services by highly qualified staff that will introduce the latest achievements of scientists in this field together with various services to gardeners.

- The development of the sector should be conducted as a priority in the field of extensive and intensive basis of the fruit-growing area. One of the most important ways to increase intensification in breeding is to use optimal doses of organic and mineral fertilizers in the area of ​​fruit, which will further enhance fruit yield and improve its qualitative indicator.

- It is necessary­ to provide farms with high quality standard staples. The work should be mainly directed to the selection of improved varieties of the rootstock resistent to various types of viruses and fruit diseases.

In the cultivation of fruit gardens, the preference should be given to the varieties of fruit trees that are rich in pre-harvest and have a rich and regular harvest and their fruits are high in dignity and are rich in aromatic and attractive color.

_  In fruit growing, fruit production, fruit sorting, packing and storage repositories, as well as transportation to resolve the issue in the past, we consider it expedient  a gardener by the widespread practice has posibility to estabilish  cooperatives and condominiums on the basis of which he can own a small fruit processing plats.

Together with classical fruit-growing  countries (Hungary, Moldova, Poland, etc.), Georgia should also take its place in the direction of producing fruit juices, concentrates, fruit puree, jams and other high quality products.

- We believe that it is necessary to connect scientific institutions employed in this field to scientific research centers of classical fruit-growing  countries,  for sharing and exchange of new scientific achievements in this field, which will facilitate further development of the harvest.

- In the nearest future industrial production and processing industry should be placed on the market economy of its infrastructure, which will facilitate attracting favorable investments, introduction of scientific achievements and the special love of Georgian mentor towards this traditional sector.


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