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Journal number 3 ∘ Lela Guledani

Expanded Summary

In the beginning of the 21st century, almost all countries with advanced economies are interested in to promote regional innovation systems and clusters development policy, thus raise country’s national competitiveness as an opportunity  of  economic growth and development.

Many examples of world practice demonstrate that the clustered form of the production  is most favorable  for the innovative process. Cluster helps the cooperation of interested bodies, forming the region’s unique competences, focusing  enterprises and organizations in a specific area.

The main task of modern Georgian economy is to activate innovative processes and to move it  to innovative development. In this regard, special attention is paid to the tasks relating to innovation clusters as an independent event.

Georgia should form a combination of favorable factors for innovative development. For supporting Clusters should be created a system of state measures and mechanisms to increase the competitiveness of enterprises, clusters in the region and increase innovations.

Cluster’s concept’s acceleration will promote the development of small innovative businesses in Georgia and regions. Support and creation of clustered structures can become the reason of the state’s  and  each territorial entity’s  progress.

Country’s or region’s cluster policy  is a "cluster initiative" portfolio that deals with the effects and risks caused by the cluster creation. "Cluster Initiative" is the process of creating and developing a specific cluster that can be formed by region’s community, firms and other active institutions.

The clear examples of innovative clusters of foreign countries are:

  • USA - 380 clusters, Specialized  in - Computer Technologies. Cluster - "Silicon Valley". Homeland of the world famous companies: Intel, AMD, Oracle, Apple, Cisco, Yahoo !
  • France - 96 clusters, Specialized in  - pharmaceutical and cosmetics. Production of food products. Cluster - "Cosmetic Valley" - 600 enterprises, the world leader in the production of cosmetics.
  • India - 106 clusters, Specialized in - Computer Technologies. The turnover of IT sectors in India is about 70 billion dollars.
  • Italy - 206 clusters, Specialized in - production of consumer goods and food products. Cluster - "Sassuolo": 330 million cubic meters of ceramic tiles per year 3 billion euros.

However, despite all of the above-mentioned advantages, there is no universal concept of Clusters Development in Georgia. The concept of "cluster" is not approved by the legislation. In this conditions the Cluster policy is gaining a  particular importance.

Cluster Policy is a  system of state measures and mechanisms for supporting clusters, ensuring the growth of competitiveness of enterprises in clusters, as well as introduction of innovations. It is collection of  clusters initiatives. The necessity of supporting and sustaining innovative clusters is confirmed by many arguments.

Improvement of clusters development and creation for Georgia can be useful, for this there should be the following preconditions for the formation of an innovative cluster:

- Existence of scientific potential (presence of world class science, large scientific centers, existence of higher industrial science);

- Institutional prerequisites to support the idea of ​​innovative cluster formation - Various funds from budget funds, as well as the state and regional support of this idea;

- Political prerequisites (government decision on innovation activities, as one of the strategic priorities);

- Preconditions of production, namely, the level of innovation in the region and individual firms.

Georgia should form a combination of favorable factors for innovative development. Among them are high concentration of persons with higher education in the structure of the population, the development of scientific infrastructure, the realization  of projects developed by  the enterprises in the regions and towns. 

For the further development and strengthening of scientific-technical potential in Georgia, it is possible to create regional clusters of small innovative enterprises.

Based on the theoretical preconditions of Western experience, the following innovative approaches can be offered to create conditions for the development of small innovative clusters in Georgia:

  1. Preparation level, which provides the  general methodological processing of cluster model in the region of Georgia.
  2. Analytical level , which provides  the steps for formatting clusters core and potential;
  3. Organizational-economical level, which envisages processing of clusters for effective work;
  4. Cluster Performance Assessment Phase. This phase provides an analysis of the effectiveness of the Cluster Development Strategy, in various directions.