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Journal number 4 ∘ Vakhtang Burduli

DOI:  10.36172/EKONOMISTI.2020.XVI.04.Burduli

Expanded Summary

In order to investigate the sectoral problems of the diffusion of innovations, it is first of all necessary to study modern views on the classification of types of innovations and the systematization of methods for their development and dissemination, which I have done in the first section of the work. In the second section of the work, the sectoral (sectoral and subsector) problems of the diffusion of innovations are systematically examined, and they are systematized in the context of innovations that are disseminated only within certain specific sectors (sectors, and in industry and subsectors) of the economy, and innovations that are disseminated in all sectors under the auspices of green economy (about 40% of all innovations spread in the world), information and communication technologies (or, in a broader sense, digital economy) - about 40% of all innovations spread in the world, production technologies and the use of composite materials and products made from them.

Based on modern concepts, the first section compiled a classification of innovations in the context of a number of criteria for their identification, as well as systematized and characterized the ways of developing and disseminating innovations.

The types of innovations are given and highlighted in the context of the following criteria: by importance (basic, improving and pseudo-innovations); by the degree of novelty for the market or enterprise; by the developer (external sources or by the enterprise); by scope or type of innovation (material and technical or technological; social, including organizational, economic, legal and pedagogical; environmental; in the field of green economy; information and communication or digital; in the field of circular economy, etc.); by subject and scope (product and process); by the criterion of prevalence (single and diffuse, that is, distributed in many industries); in place in the enterprise system (innovation at the entrance to the enterprise, innovation in the system structure of the enterprise, innovation at the exit of the enterprise), etc.

Further, the ways of developing innovations are systematized. According to the development criterion, an innovation can be developed by an enterprise or an external source, but most often, especially basic and improving innovations, are developed by external specialized entities, which are systematized and described in the corresponding paragraph (Methods for developing innovations) of the first section.

Methods of diffusion of innovations are systematized and characterized in detail. Even in the case of internal (within an enterprise or organization) development of innovations (basic, improving, modification), the conditions for their dissemination often require the purchase of patent licenses, technological documentation, etc.). However, which is quite natural, in the majority of medium and small enterprises and organizations (with the exception of specialized innovative enterprises), innovations are disseminated by purchasing basic (including in the form of "turnkey contracts") and in different types (equipment, documentation, licenses, advisory services, etc.) improving and modifying innovations, often with the involvement of specialists to facilitate their implementation.

Naturally, the main way of promoting innovations in production (dissemination of innovations in production) is borrowing (most often imports) of both basic and improving innovations, product and process innovations at each stage of their promotion (special research, direct development, implementation).

At the end of the first section, the main modern mechanisms existing in developed countries for the promotion (diffusion) of innovations in production are given and characterized.

Generalization and systematization of the classification features of innovations, methods of their development and distribution is of significant practical importance, since it has the potential ability to give a detailed idea of ​​the characteristics of a particular progressive innovation, makes it possible to identify the features of innovations, successfully manage innovation, see the available reserves, select the most rational options for management decisions. In particular, it is necessary to provide adequate support from the state for the introduction of innovations at the country's enterprises.

The second section examines the current sectoral problems of the diffusion of innovations with a focus on the classification of types of innovations given in the first section.

As you know, economic sectors (sectors in terms of types of activity or in terms of types of products or services produced in them) develop on the basis of diffusion (spread) in them of innovations (basic, improving, pseudo-innovations). Moreover, not only physical technologies are being updated, but also social and institutional (managerial or business technologies, i.e. technologies of market and other industrial relations, as well as technologies of state coordination of structural and sectoral development).

Judging from the point of view of the number of innovations (basic, improving and pseudo-innovations) that are now spreading in many industries (by the prevalence criterion), innovations that are a key factor of the modern technological order are innovations that are distributed in different industries through IC technologies (now mainly digital technologies) - about 40% of the total number of innovations; disseminated in different sectors through the green economy - about 40% of the total amount of innovations (however, innovations through the green economy partially overlap with innovations taken into account through the circular economy and ecology); innovations spread in some industries in the line of composite materials and nanotechnology; circular economy and ecology innovations spread across all sectors; biotechnological innovations spread in the field of health care (microbiology, molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, embryology, genetic engineering, virology, etc.).

This section focuses on innovations spread through digital (or information and communication) technologies.

t is the speed and versatility that made information and communication technologies so popular in modern branches of science, production and everyday life. Computers, smartphones, television digital electronics, etc. are a unique phenomenon that has radically changed the lives of every inhabitant of the planet over the past decades. In the sphere of these already existing tenologies, their modernization takes place through the implementation of mainly improving and pseudo-innovations.

The transition to the possibilities of using new forms of labor organization using automated systems for assigning tasks, enterprise management, taking into account the effective allocation of resources, electronic accounting and document management, as well as systems for monitoring production, the environment and support for making managerial and technological decisions, allows for a qualitative leap and more efficiently use the available economic potential. This transition is already taking place through the implementation of appropriate basic and enhancement innovations. At the same time, the volume of new innovative developments in this direction is growing all over the world.

Modern researchers and specialists identify ten main directions for the development of digital technologies (in these areas, both basic and improving innovations are implemented, some of them are product innovations, but mostly process innovations, however, in the service sector, many of them can be interpreted as product innovations): 1. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning). 2. Blockchain and Cryptocurrencies. 3. Big Data. 4. Telemedicine. 5. Augmented and Virtual Reality (AR / VR). 6. Chat-bots and Virtual Assistants (Bots and Virtual Assistants). 7. Mobile and Cybersecurity. 8. Internet of Things (IoT). 9. Computer Vision. 10. Artificial Neural Networks [Чеботарев А., 2018]. In most of these areas, relevant innovations can spread across all sectors of the economy.

Also, great attention is paid to innovations disseminated through the green economy.

All areas of green economy development require the introduction of innovations both in the form of introducing completely new technologies (basic innovations) and improving innovations, for example, in order to improve the energy efficiency of industrial equipment. In our opinion, the following key generalized directions of the “green” economy can be distinguished: 1. General ecosystem management (waste management, water and air pollution control, restoration and rational use of lands, restoration and planting of forests); 2. Introduction of renewable energy sources; 3. Reducing the energy intensity of GDP and increasing energy efficiency (construction of buildings and housing and communal services, industry, transport, agriculture); 4. Development of electric transport; 5. Organic farming in agriculture; 6. Development of ecological tourism.

The second section also examines innovations that are spread through innovative materials and products from them. The production of composite materials and products from them is an industry in itself, while innovative products from them are used in various industries and energy and in construction.

According to expert estimates, the main consumers of composite products in the world are transport engineering (about 28%), the construction industry (including pipes and containers for housing and communal services, about 24%), energy and electronics, including wind energy (about 23% ), oil and gas industry (about 10%), sports, medicine, nonferrous metallurgy.

By the nature of the matrix components, composite materials are divided into three groups: polymer composite materials; composite materials with a metal matrix; ceramic-based composite materials. The paper lists and characterizes the types of these innovative materials, as well as lists the innovative technologies with which these materials and products are produced, and the industries in which important innovative products from composite materials are used.